When working with adolescents in helping professions such as teaching, it is important to acquire the skills to solve conflicts that happen among adolescents due to differing opinions and values. It is important to solve these conflicts by creating solutions that both students and others can be satisfied. The skills to devise such solutions are “integrating conflict resolution skills.” However, a psycho-educational program to improve them is yet to be developed. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop such a program to improve these skills and examine the effectiveness of the program.
In this study, 30 participants belonged to the intervention group, and 24 were in the control group for per-protocol analysis. The program has four sessions (90 minutes/1 session) and the training components included conflict resolution theory, basic listening skills, attention to implicit wants, anger management, assertion, mediation, and role-playing. In order to assess the effectiveness of this program, the participants completed a rating scale that assessed the intelligibility of integrating conflict resolution, integrating conflict resolution skills, discomfort with anger, relationship-keeping/conflict avoiding behavior, and a sense of authenticity.
The results from the McNemar test of intelligibility show that the post-score is significantly higher than the pre-score. The result from a t test that compared the change of each rating scale score, three subscales of integrating conflict resolution skills, discomfort with anger, a subscale of relationship-keeping/conflict avoiding behavior, and a sense of authenticity in the intervention group, were significantly increased.
The findings suggest that this psycho-educational program to improve integrating conflict resolution skills not only increased those skills but also changed discomfort for anger, one subscale of relationship-keeping/conflict avoiding behavior and a sense of authenticity adaptively. Moreover, this program may also be useful in helping individuals in the teaching profession to assist adolescents with enhancing their specialty and mental health. Finally, the limitations and challenges of this study were discussed.
School is a crucial setting venue in which to intervene to prevent self-injurious behavior, but Japanese studies on the subject have focused predominantly on responses by school nurses and school counselors. Thus, the current study analyzed how teachers currently deal with self-injurious behavior of students and it includes discussion of organized approaches to deal with that behavior.
Teachers from five public high schools in A Prefecture answed a questionnaire on responses to self-harming students and their attitudes towards those responses (164 teachers responded). Teachers' responses to self-harm by students were subjected to factor analysis, and the relationship between teachers' attitudes and their responses to self-harm was analyzed using regression analysis and covariance structure analysis. A cluster analysis of teachers' responses to self-harming students was performed, and an analysis of variance was performed with regard to differences in teachers' responses to self-harm at the five schools studied.
Four teacher responses to self-injurious behavior by students were identified: Crisis Intervention, Counseling and Dialogue, Advising, and Coordinated Supervision. These responses were affected by teachers' attitudes toward education and student self-harm. Cluster analysis revealed that teachers were either in an active response cluster that implemented all four responses or a passive response cluster that implemented none of the responses. The most passive response was toward part-time high school students.
The four responses to self-harm are mutually exclusive, but zealous teachers tended to implement several conflicting responses. Teachers as a whole and school faculties were divided into groups: one group implemented all four (potentially conflicting) responses to self-harm and another failed to respond because it lacked coordination and assigned roles. To ameliorate this situation, the four responses to self-harm need to be viewed as four different roles. Teachers need to respond to self-injurious behavior in a coordinated and organized manner.
People with gender identity disorders have been gaining social acceptance since the late 1990s. However, there are studies indicating that such people have various social and psychological problems, suggesting that they experience a high degree of psychological stress even in the contemporary society. This study examined difficulties confronted by these people and factors relating to overcoming these difficulties to identify methods of support for such individuals.
People with gender identity disorders (N=3) participated in this study. They were interviewed using semi-structured interviews regarding the difficulties they have confronted and how they coped with difficult situations. The contents of the interviews were analyzed using the Trajectory Equifinality Model.
Difficulties experienced by people with gender identity disorders included rejection of their clothing and personal preferences, their secondary sexual characteristics, pressure by schools and workplaces to confirm to the traditional gender role system regarding uniforms, and problems at work. Their coping methods included keeping their gender dysphoria hidden in order to avert criticism from others, accepting physical changes, uniforms, and gender role systems based on their biological sex as well as keeping company with people having gender identity problems, seeking knowledge about sex and gender, and seeking the acceptance of family and friends.
The results identified the following factors related to overcoming difficulties faced by people with gender identity disorders:
1) Understanding sexual diversity
2) Keeping company with people that are members of a sexual minority
3) Acceptance by family and friends
4) Arrangements for accepting children with gender identity disorders in schools
5) Acceptance at workplaces
In particular, factors 4) and 5) indicate that people with gender identity disorders suffer from a gender role system that clearly discriminates between males and females on the basis of sexual dualism. This study suggests the importance of understanding sexual diversity and modifying behaviors as appropriate for different situations. It also shows the need to investigate the reasons for barriers against accepting such people in society, which is responsible for the negative environment faced by people with gender identity disorders.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the actual situation of “Basic Self Esteem” and “Social Self Esteem” of primary, junior high, and high school students in Japan. “Basic Self Esteem” means “good enough,” and “Social Self Esteem” means “very good” affection (Rosenberg, 1965).
The participants consist of 452 males and 425 females from three primary schools, 1,180 males and 1,158 females from seven junior high schools, and 1,278 males and 1,319 females from five high schools. The method used was the Social and Basic Self Esteem Test (“SOBA-SET”) developed by Kondo (2010), which was used to measure self-esteem.
Regarding social self-esteem, females scored significantly higher than males in all grades from fourth grade primary school to third-year high school students. For basic self-esteem, males scored significantly higher than females in all grades from first-year junior high school to third-year high school. In a comparative analysis of different grades for males, sixth-grade primary school students scored significantly higher than first-grade junior high school students. Moreover, second-grade junior high school students scored significantly higher than third-grade junior high school students. In a comparative analysis of different grades for females, sixth-grade primary school students scored significantly higher than first-grade junior high school students.
This study clarified that there were some gender differences and grade differences in self-esteem. Furthermore, the factors behind the results can be considered as the influence of gender differences from interpersonal features, social and cultural gender differences in Japan, the environmental changes in entering junior high schools, and gender differences against such stresses.
The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of outdoor educational activities for suffering children to increase their resiliencies and decrease their stress responses after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake in 2011.
The parents of 129 children, who were willing to attend the outdoor educational activities, were asked to complete a questionnaire about their experiences of the earthquake damage and stress responses in July 2012. They attended one or two outdoor educational activities, which aimed to grow up their resiliencies and decrease their stressors in August. Half a year later, the follow-up outdoor activity was held.
(1) Results of the factor analysis revealed that the stressors scale was composed of three factors (Anxiety and Regressions, Anger, and Excess good child). (2) The anger of 30 participants was significantly decreased six months later after participation in the summer activities. (3) All of the 25 parents of 30 children, who answered on free descriptive answer text, described the positive changes of their children's behaviors after the summer activities.
The results indicated that the outdoor educational activities were effective in increasing children's resiliencies and decreasing their stress responses. The components of the outdoor educational activities that would be effective in decreasing children's suffering were discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the causal relationships between social interest schema and life satisfaction in elementary school children.
The participants of the longitudinal study were 218 children in grades three through six. The children completed questionnaires twice during a four-month period. These questionnaires were based on a social interest scale and a life satisfaction scale.
A cross-lagged effects model indicated that no significant associations emerged between social interest schema and life satisfaction. A synchronous effects model indicated that social interest schema (T2) had a significant effect on life satisfaction (T2) (β=0.23, p=.047) and that life satisfaction (T2) had a significant effect on social interest schema (T2) (β=0.25, p=.039).
This result suggests that the relationship between social interest schema and life satisfaction is interactive.