Journal of School Mental Health
Online ISSN : 2433-1937
Print ISSN : 1344-5944
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Original Article
  • Shuji DAIMON, Toshie MIYASHITA
    2017 Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 148-159
    Published: 2017
    Released: November 13, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose]

    The study investigates the associations between the Kinetic School Drawing technique (KSD) and school adaptation. More particularly, it investigates the associations between the technique and children’s capacity to adapt to the primary school environment.

    [Methods]

    600 students from three elementary schools were participated in this study. This study carried out KSD technique, Classroom satisfaction scale (Questionnaire-Utilities), and stress measurement test, and analyzed them by elementary school lower grades, middle grades, upper grades.

    [Results]

    Students who scored high in the assessments typically drew bright impressions, and the stories they associated with their pictures were positive. They also displayed high levels of integrity. Lower and upper grade students who scored high typically drew bright facial expressions of the teacher’s face. Middle grade students with high scores drew pictures of their own faces; the pictures displayed the front side of their faces. Upper grade students with high scores drew big figures of their teachers. In the non-adaptive group, there were many pictures that could not be judged whether it was bright or dark. The stories they associated with the pictures were negative. The integrity levels were also low. Teacher image of the non-adaptive group in the low grade group, in the drawing of the face, there were few eyes, nose, mouth pictures, and in the friends statues there were no facial expressions. In the non-adaptive group of middle grade, there were many face back self-images, and did not drew teacher or friends. Also, self-image and teacher were drawn nearby. In the non-adaptive group of the upper grade, there were many neutral facial expressions in self-image and teacher. In friends, there were many sideways faces.

    [Discussion/Conclusion]

    The researchers have generated an adaptive index of the lower grade students involved in the study. Additionally, a new general adaptive index has also been developed.

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Original Article: Practical Study
  • Nozomi TSUKAHARA
    2017 Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 160-169
    Published: 2017
    Released: November 13, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose]

    This study examines the effects and the efficacy of a training program aimed at improving junior-high school students’ capacity for self-expression. The training program was developed by the researcher for the purpose of this study.

    [Methods]

    The training program was based on the Finland method adopted in Finland to enhance the ability to express. The program was conducted for a total of five times with Grade 3 junior-high school students as participants. The effects and the efficacy of the program were examined by analyzing the changes in the students’ Picture-Frustration study score and the descriptive responses they were required to provide in the worksheet used in the program. The students were divided into three groups on the basis of the homeroom teacher’s assessment of the students’ capacity for self-expression. One student from each group was chosen to examine the effects and the efficacy of the training program.

    [Results]

    The three students’ scores for “Ego-Defense” and “Need-Persistence” improved as a result of the training and their scores also edged closer to the average score for children at those ages. An analysis of the worksheets reveals that changes among students from the high and low groups were negligible, whereas students from the moderate group displayed remarkable changes.

    [Discussion/Conclusion]

    The training produced different results and changes among the students. However, changes were noted among all students in terms of the ability to express their thoughts and the ability to balance reactions in Ego- and Superego-Blocking situations. In addition, students in the moderate group displayed their inclination to make conscious attempts to solve problems rather than reacting to the problems immediately. Therefore, it can be said that the training program enabled the students to learn to express their ideas and approach problems in a relaxed manner.

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Original Research
  • Tomoo ADACHI
    2017 Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 170-179
    Published: 2017
    Released: November 13, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose]

    This study aims to examine the links between the need for psychological support at schools, declining birthrate, aging population, the different types of schools, and the precise needs contents.

    [Methods]

    Questionnaires prepared for this study were mailed to all kindergartens and schools in Aomori Prefecture. The questionnaires were designed to elicit information regarding the need for psychological support at schools.

    [Results]

    52 kindergartens, 203 primary schools, 102 junior-high schools, and 75 high schools returned filled-in questionnaires. Factor analysis revealed that the schools required psychological support to address the following four concerns: (i) psycho-social problems, (ii) learning problems and group activities facilitation, (iii) career guidance, and (iv) other complex problems. A three-way ANOVA indicated the following. For all schools involved in the study, the need to address psycho-social problems and complex problems was more urgent than the need to address the other problems mentioned above. Additionally, high schools located in areas relatively unaffected by the declining birthrate and aging population had more needs than those located in areas more affected by the two factors. Primary schools and junior-high schools required more support to address psycho-social problems than kindergartens.

    [Discussion/Conclusion]

    To determine the precise needs contents, the specialty of the school counselors (typically clinical psychologists) was discussed. To determine the effects of the declining birthrate and aging population, the load and the specialty of teachers were discussed. In addition, the poor level of awareness regarding the need for psychological support at kindergartens was also discussed.

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  • Nobuko MATSUOKA, Yasumasa OTSUKA, Yumi ISHIDA, Junko KAWAHITO
    2017 Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 180-187
    Published: 2017
    Released: November 13, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose]

    This study examines the relations between job stressors and workaholism among Japanese elementary, junior high, and high school teachers.

    [Methods]

    For the purpose of this study, 78 elementary, junior-high, and high school teachers (male 24, female 53, gender unknown 1; average age 45.0, SD=8.4) answered the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire and the shorter Japanese version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale in August 2014.

    [Results]

    A one-way ANOVA revealed that there was a significant difference in the mean values of psychological qualitative workloads for elementary and high school teachers. Significant differences also existed in the mean values of the element “working compulsively” (WC); the value was different for elementary and high school teachers as well as junior-high school and high school teachers. Correlation analyses also revealed that element “working excessively” (WE) was strongly and positively correlated to psychological quantitative workloads and moderately and positively correlated to psychological qualitative workloads among elementary school teachers. On the contrary, WC was moderately and positively correlated to psychological quantitative workloads and weakly and positively correlated to psychological qualitative workloads and low job control among elementary school teachers. WE was found to be moderately and positively correlated to psychological quantitative workloads among junior-high school teachers. WE was moderately and positively correlated to interpersonal conflicts among high school teachers.

    [Discussion]

    This study suggests that the associations between job stressors and workaholism vary depending on the school level—elementary, junior high, or high school. Further research is required to confirm this suggestion, and it is important for studies to use larger samples in order to examine the associations between job stressors and workaholism.

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  • Haruka ONO, Toshimi OMAGARI, Yusuke SOKABE, Shunsuke KOSE
    2017 Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 188-196
    Published: 2017
    Released: November 13, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose]

    It is difficult for students with intellectual disabilities to understand and engage in appropriate communication using only the information and cues given by their communication partners. They also lack the social skills, particularly interpersonal communicative skills, to maintain smooth interpersonal relationships. A school-based or classroom-based support system has been developed to address the issue. However, the system operates with limited scope, and it concerns itself only with interpersonal communication skills and everyday life skills. This study aims to throw light on the limitations and the areas of improvement in the interpersonal communication support strategies currently used to aid children with intellectual disabilities. To this end, we have reviewed studies that have been published in the last 15 years, especially the ones that focus on intervention as a support strategy.

    [Methods]

    For the purpose of this study, a keyword-search was conducted using CiNii, an academic database service. The keywords searched for were “intellectual disability,” “communication,” “social skills,” “interpersonal relationship,” “interaction,” “intervention,” “group-oriented contingency,” “cognitive behavioral therapy,” “Social Skills Training (SST),” “psychological education,” “assessment,” “behavior analysis,” and “modeling.”

    [Results]

    Five studies were identified on the basis of the keyword-search, of which three studies focused on elementary school students, and two studies focused on junior-high school students. Two of the five studies sought to promote communication between friends through communicative interaction based on group-oriented contingency. On the contrary, three of the five studies were based on SST and sought to promote communication between friends.

    [Discussion/Conclusion]

    We found that the use of adaptive skills acquired through SST decreases over time. The following were identified as essential factors in the context of implementing support strategies to develop interpersonal communication skills: functional assessment, providing functional feedback, providing reflective support for choosing target behavior, determining tokens on the basis of school culture, and developing intervention structures on the basis of a participant’s ability. In addition, while combining intervention factors, it is necessary to acknowledge temporal restrictions and other limitations, such as a shortage of human resources.

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Short Report
  • Norimasa ITAKURA
    2017 Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 197-203
    Published: 2017
    Released: November 13, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    [Purpose]

    This study examines the correlations between (i) parent-adolescent communication about class teachers, (ii) high school students’ trust in teachers, and (iii) the feeling of school avoidance.

    Methods: For the purpose of this study, a questionnaire was distributed among high school students (N=250, 125 boys and 125 girls). The questionnaire was registered with MELLLINKS, an online survey company. Consent was obtained from the participants.

    [Results]

    Positive correlations were observed between (i) favorable communication about class teachers between parents and children, (ii) students’ sense of security with teachers, and (iii) students’ assessment of teachers’ role accomplishment. Positive correlations were also observed between (i) negative communication about class teachers between parents and adolescents, (ii) students’ distrust of teachers, and (iii) feelings of school avoidance.

    [Discussion/Conclusion]

    The results suggest that parents’ trust in teachers might enable students to trust their teachers as well. Additionally, it is also important to encourage parents to form positive evaluations of teachers in order to alleviate high school students’ feeling of school avoidance.

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