【Purpose】This study aims to investigate the involvement and support of yogo teachers of children with trichotillomania in terms of secondary prevention of this disorder in school mental health programs.
【Methods】The informants consisted of 140 yogo teachers who were randomly selected from elementary, junior high, and high schools in Tokyo. Questionnaires were used to determine if they had been involved in any hair-pulling cases and the signs, details of their involvement, and changes in hair-pulling instances after their involvement. In addition, the emotional behavioral characteristics of the children with trichotillomania were determined by using the Child Behavior Check-list: Teacher’s Report Form (TRF).
【Results】The participants consisted of 68 children (21 boys, 46 girls, and 1 blank) with an average age of 11.7 years old. Approximately 80% of the children fell under one of two categories on the TRF: the border level or the clinical level. From an emotional behavioral perspective, it was clear that children with trichotillomania were more unstable than other children of the same age, and the majority of those suffering from the disorder did not initiate spontaneous counseling. However, more than 70% of them showed considerable improvement through the involvement of the yogo teachers. The results show that the order of participation in class teachers and parents is a predictive factor regarding such improvement.
【Discussion/Conclusion】On the basis of the findings, for early detection of trichotillomania in students, it is important that not only yogo teachers but all school teachers need to heighten their attention and awareness of this issue. In addition, trichotillomania often leads to more serious issues in which specialized mental health support becomes necessary. This suggests that it is important to cooperate with parents through class teachers to quickly improve and positively affect those suffering from trichotillomania.
[Issues and Objectives] To explore self-injurious behavior in a school setting, this study examines the association between adolescent self-injurious behavior and spirituality and views on life and death. The relationship between these factors has seldom been studied, and self-injurious behavior in a school setting is yet to be identified clearly. In addition, a significant percentage of students attending part-time high school has exhibited self-injurious behaviors. Therefore, a methodology to deal with this issue needs to be devised promptly.
[Methods] In total, 266 part-time high school students (130 males, 136 females) were surveyed by a questionnaire, which included a Spirituality Scale and Views on Life and Death Scale. The association between self-injurious behavior and spirituality and views on life and death was examined by using factor analysis, higher-order factor analysis, and covariance structure analysis.
[Results] “Finding transcendent meaning” (a factor for spirituality) and “defending against death” (a factor related to views on life and death) both inhibited self-injurious behavior. Conversely, “emotional attachments” (another factor for spirituality) and “a positive regard for dying” (a factor related to views on life and death) were found to encourage self-injurious behavior.
[Discussion] The results suggest the importance of respecting students’ attitudes regarding “defending against death” when educating them about preventing and alleviating self-injurious behavior. The results also indicate the effectiveness of capitalizing on healthy spirituality.
Objective: At schools where children have various issues that need to be addressed, an impasse can result when the school seeks to provide them with assistance, because of difficulties in responding to them and their guardians, including the initial response. Such a situation can become serious. This study reports on various cases in which a school counselor intervened to assist students and the situation reached an impasse. The study aims to examine the role of the school counselor by qualitatively investigating the factors that contribute to an impasse.
Methods: Various obvious case examples of assistance to students that reach an impasse were extracted. The subjects were school children/students who attend public elementary, middle, or high schools, and guardians and teachers. These case examples were outlined.
Results: An examination of the five case examples suggested that the factors that led to an impasse in assisting students were their rejection of and rebellion against help, the guardian’s passivity and uncooperativeness, and factors related to the school. Furthermore, the impetuses for overcoming an impasse were the identification of the problem and intervention by a third party (i.e., school counselors).
Discussion: The study showed that teachers who have heightened negative emotion to the extent that they cannot examine the internal conflict behind children’s behaviors, such as rejecting and rebelling, can increase the risk that assistance will reach an impasse. Therefore, it is necessary to flexibly respond to guardians who are difficult to handle by approaching them from the perspective of offering team-based assistance. Furthermore, the study suggested that when the school administration becomes exhausted, an impasse in assistance is likely to occur. Furthermore, the study examined a method of psychological assistance by which a school counselor can change a situation for the better by evaluating an impasse through judging it objectively.
【Purpose】 In 2007, “A” university established a mental health support program for student teachers with mental health issues to prevent those from being declined or suspended from their teaching practicums. Therefore, this paper examines the performance and issues regarding this particular program.
【Methods】 The analysis is based on data obtained from 8,043 university students who were pursuing their basic teaching practicums (kiso jisshu) during the 2003-2010 time period. In 2007, the program committee began selecting students who required mental health support. The effect of the program on the supported students is examined by comparing the number of students who were either declined or suspended from their teaching practicums between the four-year period before and after the initiation of the program.
【Results】Four years prior to the program, the number of students who were either declined or suspended was 178 (4.4%). However, four years after the start of the program, the number of these students was 68 (1.7%), which is a significant decrease. As a result, all 48 students receiving mental health support completed their practicums without problems.
【Discussion/Conclusion】The overall decrease in the number of students who were either declined or suspended can be attributed to the following three factors: (1) the program committee could select those students who were highly likely to face suspension or disqualification; (2) the program raised the awareness of students and instructors regarding mental health by promoting the program, which led to easy information sharing; (3) the program had a multi-level support system for students experiencing mental problems. On the basis of the findings, the mental health support program is considered to be effective since the number of students who were either declined or suspended has decreased and all of the supported recipients could complete their practicums. Furthermore, since it is vital to identify any student who might need support (but are not selected for the program), perhaps a questionnaire survey could be conducted both before and after their practicums.
[Purpose] The present study examines the relationship between social interest and adaptation as well as the relationship between social interest and maladaptation.
[Methods] The participants consisted of 134 public elementary school students (64 boys, 70 girls; third to sixth grade). The scales conducted in this study focused on social interest, self-worth, and depression.
[Results] The results of the mediation analysis indicate that the social interest of other schemas significantly mediate the relationships between the social interest of self-schema and self-worth (Sobel test z＝4.22, p＝.000, 95% CI [0.28, 0.70]). In addition, the social interest of other schemas significantly mediate the relationships between the social interest of self-schema and depression (Sobel test z＝－4.58, p＝.000, 95% CI [－0.49, －0.18]).
[Conclusion] The results of this study support the hypothesis that the social interest of other schemas mediates the relationships between the social interest of self-schema and both self-worth and depression.
This study aims to develop the Proactive Coping Inventory for Junior High School Students. The participants consisted of 424 junior high school students (236 males, 188 females; mean age＝13.68 years, SD＝0.94), who responded to socio-demographic questions related to 30 items from the Proactive Coping Inventory for Japanese Junior High School Students. To develop this scale, a statistical analysis was conducted by using exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach’s α reliability analysis, test-retest reliability analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. The results of an exploratory factor analysis show that the Proactive Coping Inventory for Junior High School Students includes five factors with 25 items: Social Support Seeking, Reflective Coping, Preventive Coping, Strategic Planning, and Proactive Coping. In addition, Cronbach’s α reliability analysis, the test-retest reliability analysis, and the confirmatory factor analysis confirm that the scale had acceptable internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and fit indices of structural validities. The findings of this study suggest that the Proactive Coping Inventory for Junior High School Students can assess the positive aspects of students coping from stress. However, further studies will be necessary to investigate the relationship between students’ proactive coping and stress related growth to clarify students’ overall growth processes.