This paper addresses the rationales, accomplishments, and limitations of the “User-Centered Approach (UCA)” to service provision proposed and practiced as a solution to the problem of poor quality and insufficient outcome of services observed in impact evaluations (Global Monitoring Report 2011). After providing conceptual and analytical approaches to the question, conceptual articulation of the nature of services and classification of services based on degrees of discretion and transaction-intensity will be provided, followed by conjectures on two types of failures in service delivery. Next will be presented discussion on the effectiveness of the UCA models (co-production and self-management), the definition and articulation of two key concepts (agency and motivation), and typologies of user-provider relations and of user agency in service transaction and utilization. Some of the important proposals and experiences of UCA are summarized in the form of general propositions on co-production in public services, people-centered primary care, and chronic illness care, and in case studies of two salient programs in social work. As central argument of the paper, the activation and development of user agency for effective partnership in co-production and for self-management will be emphasized, making reference to a general conceptual examination of “empowerment” and to important cases of intervention for agency activation and development, with a view to drawing generalizable implications. Brief discussion on the rationales, accomplishments and limitations of UCA concludes the paper.
Workers in the field of development aid, particularly those involved in capacity development projects, have for some time recognized the importance of understanding the psychology of aid beneficiaries. However, there have been very few psychological studies on development aid, possibly because there are yet few tested theoretical frameworks that allow empirical research. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical framework that would be applicable to aiding, assessing, and researching the psychology of people facing difficulties such as extreme poverty. The framework is based on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and also draws from behavior modification approaches. It is argued that for such people, as a prerequisite for supporting the need for autonomy, it is necessary to support the needs for competence and relatedness. Based on the modified SDT framework, aid paradigms such as conditional cash transfers (CCTs), the life improvement approach (LIA), the smallholder horticultural empowerment project (SHEP), and the freedom for enhancing empowerment (FrEE) approaches are examined, and future research directions are discussed.
This paper tries to identify factors and understand dynamics on enhancing agency, also understood as empowerment. Specifically, the question asked is if the black boxes existing in current theoretical explanations in the field of empowerment and agency development can be opened up by connecting practice and research, with clarifying context specific factors.
For this purpose, the author first reviews the literature on empowerment and agency development to reach a common understanding and to identify the discrepancies between the two schools, as well as to extract a theoretical model of agency development. Second, the paper identifies two dimensions and three factors for analyzing a case study to understand what is unclear from theory can be understood in reality. These are the initial context for developing the project, the actual development of an agency development project, and possible mechanisms of agency development for community members. Subsequently, a case study of the development of a training program called MMO (Metodología de Motivacióny Organización) in Nicaragua is reported on, and the processes of its inspiration, development, execution and diffusion are documented. Finally, the possible dynamics of each process of agency development are to be extracted by analyzing the case. The author also clarifies context specific factors of the case.
The major findings are as follows: first, the context specific factors that influence the whole process of agency development of people, such as the upbringing and experiences of the key person and the socio-cultural and economic features of Nicaragua are identified; second, the process of agency development experienced by the aid providers/supporters, which can be explained by self-determination theory as well as by explanatory frameworks related to social communication such as concientización and storytelling, is outlined; and, finally, the plausible mechanisms of agency development experienced by the community members is explained. This final outcome is divided into four categories relating to discussions on agency development, to promote the understanding of what is actually done on the ground beyond theoretical explanations. In other words, what is actually done in practice to foster the four types of power in relation to agency: “power from within”, “power with”, “power to” and “power over”.
This study aims to measure the impact of conflict on education outcome in the long term and to find out school factors that can effectively improve academic performance of students who have been exposed to conflict in the past. In order to examine the school factors which mitigate the conflict's negative impact on the education outcome, the research principally employs a multi-level regression model structured with cross-level interaction terms between school level characteristics and individual level conflict experience. The study focuses on the case of Timor-Leste which experienced intensive conflict for its independence in 1999, and used the 2015 EMIS individual data, results of 2015 national examination of 9th grade students completing the basic education cycle as well as the 1999 conflict data.
The study found, first, that students who were born during or before the conflict period (1999-2002) in any provinces of Timor-Leste that were exposed to severe conflict tend to receive lower national examination score in the end of the 9th grade. However, the study also found that the negative impact of a student's conflict experience in Timor-Leste is mitigated if the proportion of permanent teachers (shown as a proxy of teacher quality) in the school increases while the negative impact of conflict, on the contrary, is aggravated if the number of students in a school increases. The study further found that the existence of a school fence (shown as a proxy of school safety) raises average examination score of the school by 0.55 points compared to schools without fences, and this result can be possibly explained by the context of post-conflict situation.
This research contributes not only to making more effective education policy and system in post-conflict countries, but also serves as an additional research example in the field of measuring the impact of conflict on education outcome where not many researches have been conducted up to date.
This paper aims to discuss how the REDD+ approach has brought about the transformation of forest governance as well as made impacts on reducing deforestation in Indonesia. By defining the concept of forest governance based on the perspective of an enabling policy and regulatory framework and its effective operationalization, the paper analyzes the status of forest governance at the timing of 2009 before the REDD+ started being operationalized, identifies the content of the REDD+ approach and assesses the impact of REDD+ approach on the forest governance and reducing deforestation.
The paper argues that the REDD+ approach in Indonesia has focused on the transformation of the company governance in the plantation and oil palm sectors through the adoption and reformation of relevant regulations, including the promulgation of Presidential Decree on Moratorium and Ecosystem Restoration Concession, and this has to some extent resulted in reducing deforestation. However, the approach has not really dealt with the issue of the “open access regime” that exists in natural forests throughout the country so that the main cause of deforestation, which is the conversion of natural forests to small- and medium-scale farmlands and oil palm plantations by farmers and migrants, is yet addressed. Since the regulatory framework on Forest Management Unit (FMU), which is expected to terminate the open access regime of natural forests, is already in place, the REDD+ approach in Indonesia is suggested to articulate the full support of the FMU operationalization for the reducing CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. The paper also suggests that a REDD+ approach would be effective if REDD+ actions hold clear linkages with causes of deforestation at the planning stage and relate with a result-based payment scheme.
Universal primary education has long been an international development target and many developing countries have attempted to achieve it. In terms of access, enrollment ratios have improved even in many African countries, but education quality is problematic. In Kenya, although the expansion of primary education has gone well, it is generally noted that education quality has declined. There have been a lot of discussions on classroom practices, while teachers' performance often has low rating. Typical criticisms include: teacher-centered teaching, mechanical and repetitive teaching, poor subject knowledge and an authoritarian attitude towards students. These previous studies, however, tend to look at the issues without proper attention to their social contexts such as the school environment and the challenges students face.
The purpose of this study is to identify the autonomous efforts made by teachers who are trying to improve their classroom practices. It also examines the influence of the diverse challenges individual students face and investigates the environment surrounding teachers and students involved in such practices. Field research was conducted by employing participant observations and semi-structured interviews with ten teachers at two primary schools in Busia county for four weeks in August and September, 2016.
The study revealed the following three aspects. Firstly, although the environment surrounding classroom teaching is quite challenging, individual teachers respond to such difficulties flexibly and are engaged in classroom practices in a creative manner. These difficulties for teachers and students may have encouraged teachers to develop creativity and flexibility in lessons, skills which they are ideally expected to possess. Secondly, teachers are motivated by collegiality and responsibility to help students grow through learning. It has come to be recognized that spontaneous occasions of learning among teachers also allows them to grow as teachers. Thirdly, while government programs in order to improve teaching skills have succeeded to attain a certain level, they have negative impacts on the practice of daily teaching. Teachers may have failed to make utmost effort to improve their teaching because the manuals provided are so precise and rigid.
This research is limited with regard to having accessed interview data only from teachers. Further study should also examine the responses of students to classroom practices. Nevertheless, this study is of great value in revealing the efforts and practices of teachers by listening to their opinions regarding their classroom teaching within the context of their schools and students.