Cote d'Ivoire is considered a resource-rich country, which has been exporting cash crops, especially coffee and cacao for a long time and recently is exploiting natural resources such as oil, natural gas, and minerals. This paper is concerned with issues of the industrialization process and Dutch Disease in Cote d'Ivoire during the coffee and cacao boom in 1976-1986. At first, the author will try to review briefly the historical and institutional aspects of the industrialization process during the coffee and cacao boom. And, this paper will try to make clear that the government had better not to invest these foreign currencies earned from the boom into the boom sector, the highly protected industries, nor even non-tradable sector. But the government needs to invest them into the tradable sector, particularly, manufacturing sector or lightly protected industries from the view of balance of trade. Secondly, this paper contributes to analyze the obstacle to the country's industrialization from the view of capital-labor ratio in each of three sectors (tradable sector, non-tradable sector and boom sector). And it shows that its economic structure in 1980 tended to produce unfavorable effects on its tradable sector because of the speculation on the prices of boom goods at the world market. But, this paper also demonstrates that such unfavorable effects on the tradable sector may be diminished if this country is succeeded in lowering the capital-labor ratio of the boom sector.
Finally, the author concludes that the country which has earned only temporarily and by luck foreign currencies should not be interested in ambitious programs but should try to develop the labor intensive sector such as light industry. It may be the shortest way for the sustainable development.
Japan has increased foreign assistance for environmental preservation recently. One of the feature is the indirect approach to environmental preservation: she has allocated it mostly to environmental monitoring and end-of-pipe technologies. This is surprising because other donors have allocated it in the field of ‘environmental policy and administration,’ so that they can directly induce recipients to change policies and build administrative capacity for environmental preservation.
We take two typical environmental assistance projects to Thailand and examine their effectiveness according to the conditions conceptualized by Keohane and Levy (1996). The financial assistance to the fuel-gas desulfurization system has contributed the reduction of the emission of sulfur dioxide. It, however, failed to manage the emission completely, because it has not enhanced the environmental management capacity of the responsible authorities. The assistance to the waste water management project, by contrast, succeeded in raising concerns and in providing potential for capacity building of potential beneficiaries and responsible authorities. The success, however, does not necessarily owe to the Japanese environmental assistance: she did not initiate project-program integration. She just provided subsidized loans to the environmental fund.
To enhance the effectiveness, Japanese aid institutions should step into the preparation for environmental management strategies, in closer cooperation with recipient governments, residents and non-governmental organizations. This may bring change in the arrangements for existing foreign assistance, but this may be unavoidable as long as Japanese hope that recipients will not go through the serious pollution again.
Health care financing has been a critical concern, especially in developing countries with large populations and disease burden. Medical services have been provided free of charge, however, it is impossible to sustain financing. In the Republic of Yemen, the government is planning to introduce use fees for health services (Yemen Cost Sharing Program) at the community level based on community ownership.
Several donors have previously experienced this scheme in their project cites. These cases were surveyed and compared. These experiences showed difficulties in management and getting the objectives. Main concerns were such as setting up ‘community committee’, approval from medical staffs, and quality improvement of medical services. Results revealed the risk and harm of the introduction of this scheme by reducing in supply and accessibility of health care services.
If user-fee schemes are introduced as Yemen policy, these points should be considered;
1) Formation of community committees that is to influence the needs and opinions of community peoples
2) Support and monitoring for activating community committee
3) To promote peoples' understanding and participation through training and advocacy
4) Transparency of collected money and adequate reinvestment by peoples' request
5) Monitoring and adjusting conflicts on interests especially between private and public health sector in services provision, and community committee and medical provider
6) Support for the improvement of the quality of medical services especially at the first stage.
This paper constructed operational quantitative models to analyze the situations of external outstanding debts and debt-service ratio and applied to economic fundamentals of four Asian countries: China, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines. The quantitative models can simulate when these countries can complete repayment of the debts. We obtained two policy implications as follows:
1. We can justify correctness of policies taken by the IMF after the Asian Currency Crisis in 1997. The policies were to reduce fiscal expenditures and promote exports together with control of imports, and resulted in surplus of external current account of balance of payment.
2. The devaluation of currencies of the countries except Indonesia will not cause a serious damage to their macro economies.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the issuse of sending Japanese instructors for assisting overseas Japanese-language education through examining the case of Tunisia. Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) sent 24 teachers in total to Tunisia during 1977-1993. But this assistance was given up before its aims to establish local program and bring up local instructors were achieved, and the withdrawal of JOCV suspended Japanese-language education in this nation.
In the first part of this paper, the aid principal for overseas Japanese-language education is examined through reviewing the previous studies. The author presents the new aid principle that should aim at and contribute to every learner's welfare and interest. Then the case analysis figures out that the invalidation of the aid principle for the national interests led inevitably the close of Japanese-language education, caused by the deficient investigation into background of the aid before starting the project, the limit of JOCV operations and the lack of self-help effort on Tunisian side, apart from the fatal absence of social needs for the Japanese-language.
In the second part, the reasons why certain countries request Japanese-language instructors for the Japanese Government are explored and finally the issues for making instructors' teaching activities better and fruitful are discussed. The priamry consideration should be that the aid for overseas Japanese-language education must not seek after the quantitative spread for national interests, but the qualitative development, which first of all contribute to the welfare of individual learners. It is appropriate to endorse the thorough investigation before starting a project, the orientation and training for providing instructors with realistic expectation and the hearty consideration for various needs of Japanese-language.
Irrigation water demand has increased in many countries due to agricultural development and population growth. Present water-use institutions in Pakistan are not able to maintain discipline when users face the need for more water. This results in inequity in irrigation water distribution, a major problem for the farmers. In 1998, the Pakistani government started an institutional reform in the irrigation sector. A key to success in this reform is participatory irrigation management through farmer organizations. This report discusses the past and present experiences of farmer organizations. Particular emphasis is on the recent efforts to form a water users' organization and the role of collective action in the reform. The conditions of user governance of irrigation water are discussed, which include social empowerment, autonomy, and sustainability of the water users' organizations.
This paper presents an overview of the current situation of financial mechanism options for climate change mitigation projects with a focus on developing countries in the Asian region. Looking at broader financial flows to the region and the importance of corporate Foreign Direct Investment, it points out the limitation of current financial mechanisms and argues for a need for the private sector engagement in financing mitigation projects.
In this sense, the Clean Development Mechanism, one of the flexibility mechanisms agreed to be introduced by Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change could offer great potential in helping mobilize FDI in relative sector towards climate friendlier sustainable development, by giving market-based incentives to the private sector and internalizing a part of externalities associated with mitigation projects. However, due to additional risks and barriers involved in CDM projects, appropriate public-private linkage would be necessary.
Assuming the CDM becomes functional, in order to construct a wider and more efficient options for climate change related financial mechanisms, it would be necessary to take a holistic approach, making the best use of market enhancing functions of various public funds to complement private investment via the CDM. In doing so, relevant parties should examine a host of factors such as private sector investment behavior, risk sharing, areas where the private sector is difficult to address and coordination with existing trade and investment rules etc.
The majority of all ethnic Lao live in northeastern Thailand and their mother tongue is the Lao language. But Thai government prohibited the usage of the name “Lao” and forced to call the Lao language as the Isan language and ethnic Lao as Isan.
This study discusses young Lao's linguistic recognition about the Thai language, the Isan language and the Lao language. In 1999, I conducted a survey of young Lao's linguistic recognition on 438 college students in the northeastern Thailand.
In this study, I propose the idea of “distance between two languages” to analize the difference of languages. I also apply this idea to three languages used in the northeastern Thailand, that is, the Thai language, the Isan language and the Lao language.
The conclusion is that young Lao regard the distance between the Thai language and the Isan language as the inbetween of the same language and different languages. They also regard the distance between the Isan language and the Lao language as the inbetween of the same language and different languages. And they regard the Thai language and the Lao language are different languages.
I also came to the conclusion that which language each ethnic group use depends on the difference of the status they are in the northeastern Thailand. Lao is bilingual of the Thai language and the Lao language, and under the state of diglossia. Khmer is trilingual of the Khmer language, the Thai language and the Lao language. Khorat is bilingual of the Khorat language and Thai language.