The poor rural households in developing countries are vulnerable to the damage caused by unpredicted shock. The informal institutions created for risk coping cannot smooth unstable income of poor households completely. To smooth income of poor household, government of developing countries and aid agencies are trying to encourage those households to adopt micro-insurance.
However, the take-up rate of micro-insurance is still very low in most of the countries where the programs are introduced.
The objectives of this article are to investigate the determinants of purchasing micro-health insurance (SKY insurance) in Cambodia and the effects of the insurance on health condition of the household who purchased the insurance. For that purpose, we apply a treatment effect model, using the data which we collected in rural Cambodia. And we also estimate the treatment effect model, taking into consideration the impacts of risk and time preferences of households.
From our analysis, we find the following results. First, the purchase of SKY insurance does not have significant effects on the subjective indicators of household members' health. Second, the past experiences of illness and injury have significantly positive impacts on decision of purchase of SKY insurance only if the aged family members exist. Third, the larger the degree of risk aversion, household is less likely to purchase health insurance. These findings imply that the quality of medical services must be improved, and insurance scheme should be appropriate to match the demand of beneficiaries, in order to disseminate micro-health insurance in Cambodia.
It is very difficult to formulate a comprehensive and sustainable solid waste management plan in developing countries due to the lack of reliable source of basic waste data. The waste flow has not been comprehensively understood because many researchers (such as Thanh et al. 2010) focus on household waste of urban area. This study implemented a survey which considering the amount of waste generation, discharge amount, collection amount, disposal amount by analyzing each waste source of waste generation, including business sector, both household in waste collection and non-collection area. Taking waste generation variables into consideration such as income group and period (one week) to understand the life styles. This study analyzed the waste generation structure of Kandy MC in Sri Lanka comprehensively from the waste amount and composition survey. Although recyclable items are collected well by recycle agency, informal sector and waste collection workers comparatively, the results of the survey show that the organic waste accounts for more than 70 percent of all waste and the business waste accounts for 72 percent of the source of waste generation, this indicates that the lack of intermediate treatment facilities such as compost facility is the problem in Kandy MC. To understand the waste flow structure including business waste in urban area is critical point for future waste policy making in developing countries. In addition, the waste generation rate has a relation with income group, the high-income group has a significant difference on weekday and weekend in spite of the difference of waste generation rate by days within middle and low income group, and this shows no significant result in Kandy MC. Thus, taking high income group into consideration in future study is overarching to design waste management policy, such as separation collection.
As funding agencies for infrastructure projects, multilateral development banks play crucial roles in preventing the occurrence of fraud and corruption. This research employs a mixed methods approach to investigate the integrity norms of a multilateral development bank. A questionnaire survey was conducted to explore two aspects of integrity norms—procurement processes and social interactions—among employees working at a multilateral development bank. A regression analysis revealed that more experienced employees displayed looser integrity norms in procurement processes relative to those who were less experienced; additionally, employees directly responsible for project delivery and those hired internationally displayed looser integrity norms with respect to social interactions. A qualitative interview with and a focus group discussion among the employees indicated that their more lenient approaches toward integrity norms may result from adaptive practices intended to produce effective project delivery.
In this study, effective activities to improve enrolment and students learning achievement in public primary schools in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) are discussed through the discourse of School-Based Management (SBM), school effectiveness and learning communities. Achieving Education for All and Millennium Development Goals is one of the country's priority policy areas, and reaching the unreached and decreasing dropout and repetition are the urgent issue for education development in Laos. The research method is “a pragmatic approach” (Robson, 2011, p. 27) and “multi-strategy designs” (Robson, 2011, p. 29), which are often mentioned as mixed-methods. The quantitative study investigates 90 target schools of Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA) and qualitative study includes interview of teachers, principals and Village Education Development Committees (VEDC).
The effective activities in improving NER and students' learning achievements at the school level in the context of Lao public primary schools, and effective interventions from DESB were studied. The study confirmed several important factors to develop learning communities in Lao public primary schools: the DESB's monitoring to schools; the need for training, coaching and mentoring on detailed methods of activities to develop learning communities; encouraging the shift of teachers' concept about children's learning and securing a sufficient number of teachers and textbooks without spending from school block grants on textbooks.
These effective activities and factors for improving NER and decreasing dropout and repetition rates are quite similar to the conditions for effective schools. Therefore, in order for SBM to bring about the expected effects in school improvement, MoES and each level of local education authorities need to develop these conditions and support developing learning communities in schools.
Community-based ecotourism (CBET) has been developed particularly in developing countries to reduce rural poverty as well as support environmental conservation. This article presents a case study of CBET in the Outer channel sector of Chilika Lagoon, India where boat-trip tour activities have been initiated by the fishers who lived in vulnerable areas and were suffering from poverty in response to changes in the socio-ecological system. It aims to demonstrate the effects and challenges of CBET by highlighting the management structure of CBET and livelihood conditions of the workers (boat operators) from the viewpoint of poverty alleviation. After 2003, the vulnerable fishers established CBET enterprises in four sites with due supports of the governments. The findings revealed that they developed the institutional mechanism by applying rotating shifts for boat navigation among the members and allocating some profits from ecotourism to poor relief, cultural promotion and tourism investment, taking into account equal rights and welfare improvement among them. At the individual level, boat operators, facing with difficulties in making a living in the off-season, adapted their livelihoods by shifting their efforts to fisheries which corresponded to higher catch of prawn in the lagoon, greatly contributing to poverty alleviation. The multiple livelihood strategy adapted by the workers is expected to enhance their motivation for better CBET development. Based on these findings, this article provides some insights on identifying pressing constraints and positive strengths of CBET management in the Outer channel sector of Chilika Lagoon.
Education for displaced people has been of particular importance in the context of Education for All. Almost 50% of the world refugees are children under 18 years old. However, as more than half of them reside in non-camp settings, it is difficult to provide them with external assistance. In the case of Syrian refugees in Turkey, even with their population of 0.7 million, 70% of whom live in cities and towns, they tend to receive less assistance. There are some examples, however, that these Syrian refugees remain active players in their welfare, independently and autonomously establishing and running their own schools.
This study examines two of those refugee-managed schools in order to reveal the characteristics of the methods of their school management and teaching instruction, with particular focus on the perspectives of the teaching staff. The schools are located close to the Syrian border in Turkey. The fieldwork was carried out twice over a total period of 5 weeks in 2013. In these two schools there were a total of 1,735 students in both primary and secondary levels and about 100 staff members. To collect data, semi -structured and narrative interviews were mainly conducted, with students and parents as well as teaching staff as respondents. In addition to this, participant observation was also employed.
The results show three unique features of these schools. (1) The schools are totally managed and operated by Syrian refugees and linked with supporters particularly through social networking services such as Facebook. (2) The refugee teachers are often motivated to work because they can support and encourage students by teaching the moral of Sunni Islam. (3) This biased instruction may give negative influence on school management, but the schools have benefited from this principle since they can easily receive generous support from the same religious and political affiliation.
In conclusion, for most of the students and school staff, the practice by the school authority, which is based on the same affiliation, can be the reason why they are able to build mutual, trustworthy relationships. This produces a sense of belonging and links members of the community, school stakeholders in particular, through children's schooling. By means of this mechanism, the schools function as a unified community which can be a temporary replacement for displaced people who have lost their original communities because of the conflict.
After the Independence, many of the Kenyan farmers have been poor, and have fallen to food shortage and low productivity in a steady economic growth. In order to improve the rural Kenyan situation, Japan-JICA provided various supports. On the other hand, there are the NGO's supporting programs —main actor are the Kenyan farmers—, Such as the Hiro's Organic Farming Group (HOFG). However, some cases of support by NGOs failed to produce sufficient effect in reducing farmer's poverty because of “the divergence of farmer's recognition”.
Therefore, this field study report through the interview of poor farmers and NGOs staff aims at figuring out how to improve the rural support by HOFG and External Supporter (JICA and the other NGO). The research revealed two results. First, as commonly recognized by both of Farmers and NGOs, it is necessary to increase income in order to escape from impoverished situation. However, the second result is the divergence of farmer's recognition for the HOFGs support plan (the organic farming methods). Some of farmers recognize that the organic farming methods improve productivity and increase income. But, another farmer is skeptical about the transition to organic farming. Through the interview it has been revealed that farmers' opinion differ according to their background, e.g. migrant workers, agricultural tradition, and housework. Therefore it is necessary to consider farmer's opinions and backgrounds, and reinforce the cooperation between farmers and NGOs for more effective results.
This paper will examine for finding the important elements of Fairtrade Town creation through the questionnaire answered by people who are involved in Fairtrade Town creation in the world. Through these results, the purpose of this paper will clarify the contribution of these important elements for creating sustainable city.
These elements are similar to the necessary points for creating sustainable city. Sustainable city defines—well-balanced city based on environment, social and economic views, and this action needs to be implemented by citizens. In order to create this city, it is necessary to change social system and human values for lifestyle. From this point, Fairtrade Town creation can be supported for creating sustainable city.
Through Faritrade actions, Fairtarde Town is built by citizens for poverty reduction and environmental protection in developing countries, and for own local activation. Through results of the questionnaire, awareness-raising actions, creation of visible opportunity for Fairtrade, and multistakeholder-cooperation are the most important elements for creating Fairtrade Towns. Awareness-raising actions can expand the existence of Fairtrade to the people in various stakeholders and their motivations will be increased for Fairtarde actions and Fairtrade Town creation. Creation of visible opportunity for Fairtrade can arrange the fields of Fairtrade actions sustainability In this case, feasible approaches toward each stakeholder will be well-functioned. Multistakehoder-cooperation can provide them with opportunities for sustainable Fairtrade actions. These elements are suitable for sustainable city—comprehensive framework which has perspectives of environment, social and economy.
The purpose of this article is to examine a case of artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) in Tanzania and discuss structural factors that cause difficulty of shifting informal Artisanal and Smallscale Mining (ASM) into the formal sector.
ASGM activities are operating in the informal sector in many cases, causing environmental degradation, health and safety problems, and child labor issues as well as government's loss of incomes through royalties and taxes. The government therefore has recognized significance of supporting ASGM so as to control these problems. Support to ASGM is significant not only to control the problems but also for economic and social development since many Tanzanian people depend on ASGM activities. The government thus has integrated supporting measures for ASGM into its mining policies and poverty reduction strategies. However, there is no evidence so far that the implementation of the policies and strategies has had significant impacts on formalization of the ASGM.
It is in this context that the article discusses two factors behind the informal ASGM from legislative and administrative perspectives. From a legislative perspective, ASGM operators could be indecisive to abide by the Mining Act (2010) since legal requirements incurred in the process of and after acquiring Primary Mining License (PML) become hurdles. From an administrative perspective, the institutional arrangement of the government in the mining sector does not sufficiently function for identifying needs of ASM and delivering suitable services.
Meanwhile, the Mining Act (2010) and the Regulation are not a means to discourage informal ASGM operators unless they are capable of going through procedures of acquiring a PML and meeting the legal requirements in mining operations. However, the current situation is not in line with the legislative assumption. Therefore, the governmental support is essential.
The Caspian Sea has the geographical characteristics of the world's largest inland lake. After cold war came to an end, neighboring countries in the Caspian Sea achieved independence with collapse of the former Soviet Union. They appeared in global oil and natural gas markets as new export countries of oil and natural gas. However, neighboring countries in the Caspian Sea were only to use oil pipeline and natural gas pipeline which were constructed in the time of the Soviet Union for purpose of exporting oil and natural gas to global oil and natural gas markets. As the result of those neighboring countries in the Caspian Sea conflicted with Russia in the interest related to oil and natural gas exporting, they have actively promoted oil and the natural gas pipeline project through non-Russian territory. Azerbaijan is one of those countries which have a positive significance for oil and the natural gas pipeline project through non-Russian territory.
The other countries, major trading company and international organizations (hereinafter called “Development Factors”) have the primary concern for making enormous profits by newly constructing oil and natural gas pipeline for large-scale transportation through non-Russian territory. The strategy of exporting oil and natural gas of Azerbaijan mainly promoted oil and natural gas exporting to European market by constructing oil and natural gas pipeline through non-Russian territory.
In the sight of European countries, they are not only willing to reduce dependency of oil and natural gas import from Russia, but also acquire new oil and natural gas import from Azerbaijan and other countries.
However, the amount of oil and natural gas for reserve is small in Azerbaijan. This means exporting oil and natural gas sustainably in Azerbaijan is limited. Therefore it is necessary for Azerbaijan to tackle the transportation of oil and natural gas to Development Factors in order to make oil and natural gas pipeline work stably.
On the other hand, oil and natural gas revenue has a tremendous influence on the national economic activity. In fact the production and export of oil and natural gas are mainly carried out by state-owned enterprises. The benefits obtained from oil and natural gas exports would be directly brought into public treasury of Azerbaijan government. In result of that their income is enormous; Azerbaijan government can carry out any policy for public service without relying on tax revenue from citizens.
In other words, Azerbaijan becomes a rentier state whose natural gas and oil revenue has been taken as the main element of rent revenue.
The percentage of rent revenue of Azerbaijan in 2012 is about 63%. The numerical value is extremely high percentage of rent revenue. Such high percentage of rent revenue not only contributes to provide public service to citizens of the state by Azerbaijan government, but also reduces the job opportunity for them due to strengthening worship to Ilham Aliyev who is President of Azerbaijan.
But this will has hindered development of domestic industry of Azerbaijan.