Developing countries, including Southeast Asian countries, face an enormous challenge in ensuring equitable access to quality education in the context of deepening globalization and increasing international competition. They must meet the goal of Education for All (EFA) at the basic education level as a strong foundation to develop a more sophisticated work force. In meeting this challenge, this paper emphasizes that developing countries need to reform their education systems and service deliveries as an integral part of social and economic development. However, most of them have not yet fully developed the system, institutional, and individual capacities in undertaking necessary education reforms, especially under decentralization requiring new roles at various levels of administration and stakeholders.
Provided that an ultimate vision of educational development and cooperation in the 21st century would be to develop indigenous capacity in engineering education reforms, the paper analyzes the overall education reform context and capacity, including the status of sector program support using sector-wide approach (SWAp)/program-based approach (PBA) in developing countries. The paper also addresses how different stakeholders have been interacting in order to promote basic education, particularly from the perspectives of capacity development under the context of decentralization. Based on analysis of the global trends of educational development and cooperation, the paper proposes an “integrated model” of international cooperation to basic education in developing countries. This model posits capacity development as a key concept for enhancing aid effectiveness and comprises three main dimensions of integration: (1) interactions among stakeholders at various levels; (2) linkages among different sub-sectors in the education sector; and (3) linkages/combinations of different aid modalities, namely loans, grant aid, and technical cooperation. It is expected that by applying this model to assess current conditions of international cooperation to basic education in developing countries, donor countries and international agencies could clarify their roles in the process of promoting education reforms and enhance their aid effectiveness.
Furthermore, the paper analyzes cases of those less developed countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Vietnam, which are preparing or receiving sector program support using countryspecific forms of SWAp/PBA. Country cases particularly focus on how the stakeholders in political arenas of each country have been interacting in the process of promoting reforms in basic education. In lieu of conclusion, the paper discusses prospects of achieving EFA goals through capacity development of the local stakeholders in developing countries.
This article critically reflects upon the existing analytical framework for educational decentralization in responding to the current issues facing low-income countries. The existing framework on decentralization, which articulates the triangle relations among local government, citizen/client, and service providers, tends to overlook “divide” of actors that often arises and impedes implementation of educational decentralization at various levels of educational service delivery. The “divide” is influenced by the individual and institutional diversity in socioeconomic resources as well as attitudinal aspects including organizational culture of schools and mentality of teachers and community members. Furthermore, external political dynamics often interferes and overrides the outcome of educational decentralization.
The simultaneous implementation of decentralization and Universal Primary Education (UPE) policy adds more dilemmas between political legitimacy and central control embedded in decentralization policy. UPE tends to contradict with decentralization since it induces central control over educational provision by providing each child with equal amount of capitation grant through financial decentralization. The lack of local control over educational resources and imbalance among financial, democratic, and administrative decentralization results in different reactions and “divide” at various levels. The recent study in East African countries, namely, Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania confirms that the “divide” between various actors is apparent under the simultaneous implementation of the UPE policy and decentralization policy.
As a remedial perspective, the authors suggest to incorporate three lessons into the existing analytical framework; construction of balance among financial, democratic, and administrative decentralization, strengthening the role of the central government to minimize such “divide,” and institutional development to promote mutual effect among actors. Without strong commitment to such efforts, participation and democracy as legitimacy of decentralization and UPE as legitimacy of education are likely to remain incompatible.
HIV/AIDS is affecting both the supply of education and the demand for education, weakening the education system in the world, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, it is increasingly recognized that education can and should play a major role in HIV prevention. In this context, in 2004, the “Global Initiative on HIV/AIDS and Education” was launched by the cosponsoring UN organizations of UNAIDS (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS), including UNICEF, UNESCO and WHO. In promoting this Initiative, the international community should take advantage of the existing global policy frameworks, including the “FRESH (Focusing Resources on Effective School Health)” approach launched at the 2000 World Education Forum in Dakar, where life skills-based health education is one of the four pillars. Another existing international consensus is the booklet called “Facts for Life” that was first published by UNICEF, WHO and UNESCO in 1993, and is now globally circulated in 215 languages. Nevertheless, in order to implement these global policies at the local level, the partnerships need to be built between the education sector and the health sector, as well as between teachers and health workers in the countries. Some recent developments in Kenya will be briefly introduced to illustrate the challenges in providing gender-sensitive life skills-based health education for primary school children and out-of- school children.
Education plays the important role of bringing up the next generation to sustain society. It becomes increasingly important to have an education system optimized for the era of globalization through the use of information technology in order to deal with the increased competition and cooperation between countries. The ability to scrutinize information critically is valuable here. Through quality teaching, people should be able to select useful information from the glut that surrounds them. Mathematics and science education play a crucial role in developing such ability among children through logical and scientific thinking. Technical cooperation by JICA in this field has been very well received and is expressed through numerous projects. A historical review of the development of mathematics education reveals that three major factors: curricular relevance, student centeredness in teaching, and educational outcome and its evaluation, play a key role in quality improvement. On the other hand, a review of international cooperation in the development of mathematics and science education reveals an additional factor: the institutionalization necessary to disseminate this quality education. Analysis identifies three future issues: the accumulation of fundamental research results, research cooperation and cooperation strategies, and long-term evaluation.
This paper studies the current situation of education and associated problems in post-conflict reconstruction and explores the appropriate policy and operation system for educational assistance in emergency situation. The issues and challenges for education in reconstruction assistance are analyzed along with policies and operation systems of visions of UN organizations such as UNHCR, UNICEF, UNDP and the World Bank.
What can be found from these trends is, first of all, an extension from assistance in basic education. Aiming Education for All, they see assistance in education with the wider perspective of not only basic education, but also including middle and high education. Secondly, they see educational assistance as a key component of comprehensive support. It is a key issue in the time-lines connecting the emergency, reconstruction and development stages, and at the same time, as an issue integrating different sectors. Thirdly, there are the difficulties of assistance in education for refugees. It has achieved some results but because of that, they are seeking how to balance it with assistance in education of post-refugee assistance. Educational assistance for refugees and that of for new governments can be a trade-off. If the assistance in education for refugees is generous, then they do no return to their home countries, where the education system would be less advanced. To the contrary, without assistance in education for refugees, they cannot get a job after they return to their country. This is a big challenge for UNHCR and the NGOs, which are engaged in assistance for refugees.
Growing passions to the education were found not only in the urban areas, but also in the rural areas of Afghanistan. This could be an effect of advocacies by international bodies and other agencies. However, considering the difficult situation of the education in refugee camps and enthusiasm of Sierra Leone's returnees to education, their enthusiasms were grown not by external cause, but by an effect of displacement or conflict. Dr. Mieko Kamiya states that “How you live now would closely relate to how you see your future.” Becoming a refugee means losing a land, which is the only a livelihood in the traditional society. They have to make their new future in the evacuation place. What they can gain there are skills and qualifications by education. Besides, refugees, who had lived in a traditional society, touch different cultures (and modern cultures) of refugee camps or foreign countries. In such environment, those refugees may see education, as one would form their future. It would be understandable that the phenomenon called “refugee conversion effect” is a choice of refugees and affected people, but not caused by an external impact. This effect is linked to people's future. It has a power to engulf not only primary education but also all educations that are given by modern society. This wave of trend will run over basic education and flow into secondary education, and high education. This power would be a driving force for an education development beyond the power of Education for All.
The number of Japanese international cooperation projects in the education sector has been on the increase, as defined through The Millennium Development Goals (which provide a universally shared framework for development) and through the movement of international aid coordination; the accumulated results of these projects have been evaluated as follows. Compared overall to projects in other fields, the projects in the education sector generally had a high value. However, whether or not overall goals or long-term goals, such as lasting impact or sustainability, have been achieved will be unclear without considering results of program evaluation and policy evaluation. Program evaluation that has been done until now shows the following: On the one hand, some programs have been effectual in the expansion of the educational platform and the improvement of discrepancies in educational conditions between males and females; on the other, outcomes do not easily appear because individual projects are not always originally envisioned as a part of a program, and consequently programs become patchworks of projects. In regarding policy evaluation, while the impact of programs, as defined as the improvement of macro indices, are clear, it is uncertain how much change has been caused by the above-mentioned projects. Plainly, program-and-policy conscious project planning is essential.
This paper aims to clarify the relationship between Japan's ODA Policy and the Diet, analyzing the trend and content of the Diet discussions in the past 10 years.
The findings are as follows: 1) there are high correlation between the news of mass media and diet discussions, 2) special committee for ODA does not exist in Japanese Diet, 3) the budget and annual plan of Japan's ODA are not discussed substantially. It seemed that the role of the Diet is affected deeply by the institutional and administrative circumstances where Japan' ODA is located.
On the other hand, mature arguments have been developed recently. The discussions tends to more concentrated to “What is our strategy”, “Where and What we allocate ODA”, “How we reform ODA system”. In addition, it is clear that the Diet has given important role to policy making, especially in the case of aid policy to China and reform of ODA administration.
It seems that participation to the ODA policy by the Diet will increase still more in the future.