Early Meiji Japan witnessed a boom in Japanese Ginseng exports, but the years between 1880 and 1886 brought a sharp decline. Previous research linked this recession to chaos in domestic production and by illegal imports of Korean Ginseng without presenting data about the actual fluctuation of Ginseng output. Moreover, as the biggest target market of Japanese Ginseng exportation, the situation in Qing, China should be included in any analysis. Based on statistical data collected in China and Japan, this study clarifies the reasons for the sharp decline during the early 1880s.
PMID: 27149777 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Antibiotic products have contributed greatly to keep Japanese people healthy by controlling lethal infections. In the early days, antibiotics such as penicillin and streptomycin were produced using microbial fermentation processes. Therefore, the component ratio of the active element and related substances varied lot by lot. For the purpose of efficacy and assuring safety, minimum requirements for penicillin and streptomycin products were enacted. Both variations and the number of clinically available antibiotic products have increased due to the pharmaceutical development of novel natural antibiotics. In addition, semi-synthetic derivatives of various antibiotics have been developed for the purpose of enhancing antimicrobial activity or improving pharmacological properties. As a result, 202 entities of antibiotic products have been approved and used clinically as of 2012. We conducted a detailed investigation of the progress made in the field of antibiotic products, and analyzed the characteristics of those belonging to each class of antibiotics by means of setting up a system of classification that reflects clinical applications. This report is intended to serve as an introduction to our series of investigations into the role and influence of quality requirements on development of antibacterial antibiotic products in Japan. As described here, the general view of antibacterial antibiotic products spanning a time frame of 67 years in Japan might serve as an ideal reference for future reports.
PMID: 27149778 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Domestic production of penicillin was initiated in 1946 and that of streptomycin in 1950. In the early days, however, the quality of products was considerably lower and the capacity of production small. Surprisingly, there was a sufficient amount of penicillin preparations, with a purity of 85% or more, satisfying domestic demand within three years (1949). In the case of streptomycin, within three years (1953), preparations with a purity two-fold higher than initially available were produced in amounts sufficient to meet both domestic demand and create a surplus availability for exporting purposes. Such increases in quality and production were considered to be made possible by strict quality control of penicillin and streptomycin preparations, based on Minimum Requirements for Penicillin established in May 1947 and Minimum Requirements for Streptomycin established in December 1949. These requirements were also amended over time in order to provide even higher quality standards in response to the evolving improvements in production processes. Life-threatening diseases such as septicemia and pneumonia were controlled by the sufficient supply of high-quality penicillin preparations and the mortality rate of tuberculosis, regarded as a national disease at the time, markedly decreased by that of streptomycin preparations. Achievements of domestic production of penicillin and streptomycin were considered important factors that contributed greatly to the maintenance of public health in Japan.
PMID: 27149779 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Transitions in the Standards and Test Methods of Bromovalerylurea in JP V (1932) and JP X VI (2011), and Comparison with Deutsches Arzneibuch].
Soam discovered the drug Bromovalerylurea (or less BV) in 1907. After that, BV was imported in Japan in the latter part of the Meiji period as Western medicine. Under the influence of the First World War, in Japan, BV was domestic production. And BV are listed in JP V (1932), it is continued listing until the current JP X VI (2011). As a foreign pharmacopoeia which listed the BV, only in addition to the JP, there was a German Pharmacopoeia (DAB). During this time, the JP and DAB, the standards and test methods of BV, it was amended as shown in Table 1 and Table 2. The discrimination test and analysis test was defined based on the chemical properties of urea and isovaleric acid and bromine. Therefore, consistency was seen in the chemical criteria for test. From this it is understood that BV is Bromoisovalerateureido synthesized based on urea and isovaleric acid and bromine. This isovaleric acid is the active ingredient of Japanese Valerian and Valerian roots. BV is an organic synthetic urea derivative that was effectively improved organic synthesis isovaleric acid with respect to quality and efficacy surface. For this reason at the time that BV have been developed, it is an ideal new drug, it was described as a good medicine have no side effects. But to BV, there is a nature that it has tolerance, addictive, a dependency. In Japan after the Second World War, there was a lack of awareness about the nature of such BV. That it had become a system that masses can easily purchase the BV. Revision of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law of 1960 against in this, selling regulation of BV is provided. However, for analgesic formulated with BV of dose observed in the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, as generic drugs, selling is permitted, it is continuing until today. For this reason in recent years, long-term use of BV by self-judgment of the masses is frequent. And chronic bromine poisoning BV by this it have been a problem. Therefore regard to BV, always for their safety, including the overseas situation, I think it is important to seize the new knowledge and information.
PMID: 27149780 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Blood components and plasma derivatives are two of the most useful tools in modern medicine. When the Portuguese opened the maritime routes to the Far East in the 16th century. Western medicine traveled to Japan on the trading vessels that carried physicians and barber-surgeons to care for the body and Christian missionaries to care for the soul. Skilled interpreters such as Kogyu Yoshio translated and studied Dutch editions of early medical books, like Lorenz Heister's Chirurgie (Nurnberg, 1719), that illustrate the concept of transfusion. The oldest description of transfusion originating in Japan is a handwritten manuscript entitled Bansui Sensi Chojutsu Shomoku by Masamichi Nishijima, a student of Bansui Otsuki. It is a list of Otsuki's translated works. He described book names and chapter names in the manuscript, and when he finished translation of a chapter, he marked a circle on the chapter name. The transfusion chapter had a circle. That dates the earliest writing on transfusion in Japanese to 1804, shortly after the death of Kogyu. Unfortunately, the manuscript translation no longer exists. In 1814, Shunzo Yoshio, grandson of Kogyu, and in 1820, Tokki Koshimura, translated the figure legends of Chirurgie. Soon afterwards, after the first report of transfusion from human-to-human by James Blundell in London in 1818, Western medical books published on the subject began to arrive. The works of Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, Georg Friedrich Most and Carl Canstatt all mentioning transfusion, albeit without details, were translated by Koan Ogata and Shinryo Tsuboi. During the Edo period, Japan was a closed country; only open to the Dutch through a tiny island in Nagasaki. But Japanese doctors in the Edo period learned about blood transfusion through Dutch-translated versions of Western medical Books. Transfusion began being practiced in Japan in 1919, almost exactly 100 years after the concept was introduced.
PMID: 27149781 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Tetsuo Isogawa was born in Oita in 1852 and in 1879 began working in the Imperial Japanese Pharmaceutical Laboratory (shiyaku-jo) for medicine inspections. The same year, Dr. Tsunekichi Torigata, head of Oita Prefectural School of Medicine recruited him as its chief pharmaceutical officer. After the school's closing in 1889, he was hired as pharmaceutical lieutenant officer of the Oita prefectural government, where he strove to improve chemical and food safety for two decades. Through his work for the government, Isogawa created the modern pharmaceutical system in Oita in the late 19th century. Tetsuo Isogawa retired from public office in 1905 and died in 1908. Tetsuo Isogawa was not officially registered as a pharmacist under the 1890 Pharmacy Law; however, a special funeral address was written by the vice-president of the Oita Pharmaceutical Association on his behalf and published in the Association's journal.
PMID: 27149782 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
In this paper, the foundation of the 74 Japanese pharmacy schools was reviewed. From the early Meiji era until the beginning World War II, 21 schools including Tokyo University were established. After the war, the new four-year university system was introduced from America, and the above 21 schools became universities and 25 universities were newly founded. In 2006, clinical pharmacy was introduced from America, and the six-year undergraduate system began. This system was divided into 2 groups, 1) 6 year system of clinical pharmacy plus 4 years doctor course and 2) 4 years system of pharmaceutical sciences and a master degree lasting 2 years plus a 3 year doctor course. These two systems started in 2006. The students of clinical pharmacy course must take the 22 weeks of clerkships in a community pharmacy and hospital pharmacy. The graduates (8,446) in 2015 March took the National License Examination for pharmacist, and the pass rate was 72.65%. The entrance into pharmacy school is not easy; however, the passing of the National License Examination is more difficult. The aim of pharmacy education should be to foster pharmacists with a deeper understanding of society and with richer humanity for the patient. To achieve this, what needs to be included in the curriculum are the subjects of the human social pharmacy, such as philosophy of pharmacy, ethics, religions, history of pharmacy, pharmaceutical affairs law, economics, management, and social pharmacy. The inclusion of such subjects needs to be implemented in the near future. Of course, the study of pharmaceutical sciences is a life-long endeavor.
PMID: 27149783 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
The pharmaceutical industry, which developed through the Meiji and Taisho eras, is apparently one of the most important technological industries. However, only a few papers have been published regarding the entrepreneurships of the industry early on. It is crucial to research this subject in order to explore the process of how highly technical companies progressed in the early stage of modern industrialization in Japan. This paper focuses on two distinguished entrepreneurs, Gisaburo Shiono Jr. and Chobei Takeda the Fifth, who were both from the Dosho district of Osaka City. Gisaburo Shiono Jr. founded Shionogi & Co., Ltd. and Chobei Takeda the Fifth founded Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited; both of which are currently outstanding companies in the Japanese pharmaceutical market. The paper reveals that the two entrepreneurs started out by importing chemical materials from western Europe and North America, and then expanded their activities into manufacturing pharmaceutical materials in their own firms. Finally, they succeeded in developing their own new medicine products. Their lifetime histories, surveyed along with management activities, are described to clarify the process of each company's development through a few wartime experiences including World War I. Their achievements were quite similar, but the processes used were different. The case of Gisaburo Shiono Jr. shows his risk management skills, which filled his lack of technological leadership. The case of Chobei Takeda the Fifth shows his ability to gradually adapt the company to change throughout a long history of changing environment.
PMID: 27149784 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
Holtos is a medicine that was patented by Kan-sei-do, a pharmacy in Osaka, and sold as a Western medicine from the late Edo era to the Meiji era. It is similar to the patented medicine Uluus, which sold well using the katakana brand name. This article introduces HOLTOS products marketed beginning in the late Edo era and makes a comparative study with Uluus products. The features of Holtos include more indications of what the drug can be used to treat in order to emphasize its versatility. There was also a slight increase in size of the tablet sold at the same price as Uluus, and other improvements such as embossing the name Holtos on the surface of the tablet. These reasons lead to the conclusion that Holtos was a patented medicine that imitated Uluus. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that strategic measures were taken by Holtos to outlast competition in the market.
PMID: 27149785 [Indexed for MEDLINE]