The first coloring known to have been used deliberately in Japan is the red of red-ocher rouge. This red is also the color of the sun and blood, so it seems natural that people in ancient times would have ascribed to it the magical properties of conferring long life and reviving the dead. In the Kofun period, which corresponds to the 3rd century A.D., many colors began to be used. The theory of Yin and Yang and the five elements, said to have been transmitted to Japan from China in the latter half of the 7th century, had a strong influence on color aesthetics in Japan. According to this theory, the five colors of blue, red, yellow,
white and black are the primary colors, and are also imbued with symbolic meanings.
Documentary evidence of the use of coloring in food is extremely scarce before the Edo period.The Shosoin text of the Nara period (8th century) contains references to soybean cakes and adzuki-bean cakes, so it is known that colored processed foodstuffs were eaten in some social strata such as the Imperial Court. In the Heian period (8-12th century), ceremonies became increasingly formal, and the rice, rice cakes, rice gruel and other foods eaten during them were colored with vegetable substances such as soy beans, adzuki beans, sesame and chestnuts.
In the feudal society of medieval Japan (12-16th century), menus at samurai houses featured food coloring in foods eaten at ceremonies and formal meals. Records indicate that dishes colored with the five primary colors were served plated on turtle shells. Rice with red beans was also served in the Imperial Court during seasonal festivals on March 3rd, May 5th and September 9th.
An anthology of old Chinese herbals -books describing the medicinal properties of plants- was compiled by Li Shi Zhen in Ben Cao Gang Mu. This work included mention of many plants such as madder, safflower, and gardenia, which are used not only as medicines, but for coloring as well. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that they were used to color food. Old Chinese herbals contain a good deal of information relating to the use of coloring.
From the Edo period onwards, people began to enjoy the appearance of artificially colored food, as well as using it for symbolic, ceremonial purposes. Many books were written about cookery, and many of these mention adding coloring to a wide variety of foods including arum root, cakes, rice, rice gruel, dumplings and rice cakes. The pigments of madder, gardenia, turmeric, sappanwood, grapes, perilla, soy beans, adzuki beans and mugwort were used as food coloring. Many of these plants are used in processed foods today, and our study has shed light on their history as food coloring.
In the latter half of the 19th century, synthetic coloring ingredients began to be used for coloring food in both Western countries and Japan, and coloring ingredient regulations began to be enforced in these countries. In 1900, the regulations for the control of harmful coloring ingredients were enacted in Japan.
They listed harmful coloring not to be used for food.
On January 1, 1948, the Food Sanitation Law was enacted and 22 coloring ingredients were listed as food additives. Since then, the specifications and use restrictions have been revised many times.
Yakuzaishi is the name of a well-known journal first published in the Meiji period (1868-1912), which was established for the purpose of disseminating pharmaceutical information. There are two periods in the history of the Yakuzaishi. During the first period from 1889 to 1892, Tokyo Pharmaceutical Association published Yakuzaishi. During the second period from 1901 to 1926, Japan Pharmaceutical Association published it.
Details concerning the contents of the publication are unknown. The author tried to make the table contents of the first term of the Yakuzaishi. Yakuzaishi provided all types of information, including drug merchandising, dispensing and information to pharmacists not only in Tokyo but also in the other parts of Japan. On its cover, one can find illustrations of the tools of the modern pharmacist in the early days including a pharmacy table, microscope, gas burner, western-style scale, etc. The pharmacy table contains illustrations of medicinal plants such as opium and digitalis. These illustrations helped to give the journal's readers, Japanese pharmacists, an idea of the new scientific advancements in pharmaceutical science.
Yakuzaishi was published by Yakuzaishi sha (company).
In Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JPXVII 2016), there is a description about Kanokoso, This item is the root and rootstock of Kanokoso Valeriana fauriei Briquet (Valerianaceae). Kanokoso Valeriana fauriei Briquet is referring to Ezokanokoso Valeriana fauriei forma yezoensis Hara, which is the same variety. The Hokkaikisso currently cultivated in Japan is the Ezokanokoso variety. The author analyzed the history of the variety of Japanese Valerian previously cultivated, but it's incomplete.
To maintain the quality and efficacy of a medicine, it is important to disseminate information regarding the origin of the crude drug. To ensure the quality of Kanokoso and stable efficacy of the medicine, it's indispensable to maintain the original plant variety when cultivated.
The author obtained the following knowledge during research. The variety cultivated in Kanagawa early in the Showa era was Japanese Valerian, sometimes being two kinds, lobule and round leaf. It is presumed that the original variety cultivated in Kanagawa early in the Showa era was Hokkai-kisso.
The ingredients of the variety of Japanese Valerian cultivated and that which grows wild vary.The basis of the chemical structure of sesqui terpene kinds of α-Kessyl alcohol (KA) and Kessyl glycol diacetate (KGD), etc. has Kessane skeleton. It's this consistency and is gathered using the same type of system. The consistency is interesting. Pursuing the relation between the consistency and type of system is regarded as a problem. To obtain the same kind of ingredient and form from Hokkai-kisso in the current state seems difficult. To maintain today's quality of Hokkai-kisso and medicinal efficacy, it's important for continue to
cultivating the plant by dividing the roots for replanting.
Terumeru was a patent medicine that an apothecary in Osaka sold as an expectorant and medicine for internal diseases towards the end of the Edo era. Due to its manufacturer, Gengendo, closing its expectorant business in the early Meiji era, further details are unknown. The author investigated Terumeru products dating back approximately 200 years. The objective of this study is to clarify what kind of patent medicine Terumeru was, and furthermore, compare it to other medicines with names spelled using katakana that were distributed around the same time as a topic of discussion.
The characteristics of Terumeru were as follows : the dosage form was three times as much as that prescribed for similar drugs; and although it was said to be of Dutch origin, the name of a Chinese clinician, Zhu Zhenheng, was cited on its efficacy statement and advertising. These findings revealed that there were problems with its formulation and inconsistency in its brand image. These reasons led to the conclusion that Terumeru was considered a katakana-named patent medicine during the pioneering days of pharmacology Japan.
Saiseihigen, an instrument for measuring mine workers' disease at the Iwami-Ginzan Silver Mine in Omoricho, Oda City, Shimane, Japan, (i.e., registered as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007) is left as an industrial legacy. A young doctor, Tachu Miya, contrived it at the request of a deputy official of Omori, by 1857, preventive measures such as protection by ventilating the shafts and using masks were introduced. Up until that time, some symptomatic dosage methods for treating pneumoconiosis-syndrome were of primary concern. Even present-day medicine is incapable of healing disease caused by pneumoconiosis. Dust collection prevention, ventilation and health care are also the key present-day measures for this illness. Not only does this imply the studying of Western sciences, but also a modern rationalism means of thought, and attracts attention to the idea of preventive measures (medicine).