The medicine box in the Edo era was a kind of drug container for doctors. When doctors went to a patient’s home to give a diagnosis, they usually carried a medicine box. After the doctor diagnosed the patient, he would prescribe one or more medicines from the crude drugs in the box.
The medicine box had three to five inner boxes, and the inner boxes were filled with 24 to 30 crude drugs.
The crude drugs were each packaged in a paper pouch, and were lined up in an orderly way in the inner boxes. In this way, when the doctor took out a medicine, it would be the correct one. Today, medicine boxes are not used because preparing the medicines is done by pharmacists.
Frances Oldham was born on July 24, 1914 in the town of Cobble Hill on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. She passed away on August 7, 2015 at the age of 101.
Frances attended Leinster Preparatory School in Shawnigan Lake and graduated at the age of 15. She then attended Victoria College and McGill University in Montreal, Canada, earning a Master's Degree in Science in 1935.
In March 1936, Dr. Geiling opened a new laboratory of in the Pharmacology Department at the University of Chicago, USA, and Frances was fortunately accepted, creating her path to PhD studies.
In September 1937, the sulfanilamide elixir tragedy involving the excipient diethylene glycol (DEG) occurred in the US, leading to 105 deaths. Dr. Geiling’s laboratory participated in the safety animal study, which involved the use of rats given DEG. Frances thought that, if by carefully work such animal studies, future tragedies could be avoided.
In 1938, Frances earned a PhD with a thesis featuring the anatomy and pharmacology of the posterior pituitary gland of the nine-banded armadillo. In 1941, she started a new project entitled, The influence of pregnancy on the quinine oxidase of rabbit liver, which was carried out jointly with Dr. Fremont Ellis Kelsey. In 1943, the study was published in the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, and Frances married Fremont the same year.
In 1946, Frances entered a medical school at the University of Chicago and graduated in 1950.She moved to South Dakota with her husband with two daughters in 1952, and started her internship in early 1953 at the Sacred Heart Hospital at Yankton.
In August 1960, De. Frances Kelsey was appointed the newest medical officer of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). On September 12 of the same year, William S. Merrel Company submitted a new drug application (NDA) for thalidomide to the US FDA. As a medical officer, Frances had the primary responsibility for evaluating the clinical reports submitted with the NDA, with particular emphasis on safety.
Her steadfast refusal to approve the application saved the lives of thousands of US babies.
In 1962, President John F. Kennedy presented Dr. Frances Kelsey with an award for Distinguished Federal Civilian Service for preventing thalidomide from being marketed in the US. In September 2010, the FDA honored her with an award named for her, and a promise from FDA Commissioner Margaret A. Hamburg, MD, that the agency will carry on Kelsey’s commitment to science and integrity.
Beginning in 2010, some ethics education of training materials began being used to build a sense of mission and responsibility among Japanese pharmacy and medical students. Lessons learned from the lifetime of Dr. Frances Kelsey have received strong feedback from freshmen and sophomores taking related courses.
In April 1889, the Tokyo Pharmaceutical Association launched the magazine, Yakuzaishi. Although the original publisher was Yakuaishi-sha, the publisher changed to the Tokyo Pharmaceutical Association in June 1891. The magazine and the major contents remained the same. However, a missed issue during the changeover of the publisher resulted in the cancellation of their third-class mail license. This, along with unpaid membership fees and the costs of dispatching pharmacists to the No-Bi Earthquake sites, affected the
finances of the Tokyo Pharmaceutical Association. In June 1892, the magazine revamped its contents. Nonetheless, by the end of 1892, Yakuzaishi was discontinued. Yakuzaishi was published in cooperation with The University of Tokyo Pharmaceutical Institute, and it held an important place in providing pharmaceutical information to our nation. Hence, when the Japan Pharmaceutical Association republished the magazine in 1901, it was named Yakuzaishi, resulting in the reemergence of this traditional name.
The author felt that the course of history for the cultivation of Angelica is very similar to that of Valerian in Japan, and therefore conducted a philological investigation regarding the history of Angelica. It is believed that the historical value of Valerian could be increased by evaluating the pharmaceutical history of Angelica.
First, a search of the transition in standards and test methods of Angelica, as indicated in JP, was carried out. After that, research on the origin of the drug (area of production), which is considered important in the evaluation of quality, and the relation to demand as a crude drug were considered.
As the result, it was found that the origin and cultivar of Angelica, as the standard product of JP, were revised during the distribution of Angelica in Japan' s crude drug market. This was also influenced by a change in circumstances resulting from the popularity of Chinese medicine.
The scope of Angelica plant origin was expanded when JP IX (1976) was revised. However, the properties of crude drugs, including appearance, internal geometry, and contents such as ash, acid-insoluble ash, and mare ethanol extract of Angelica, were the standard for Yamato Angelica, the same as before. This data remains to be valid, and is exists in the current volume, JP XVII (2016).
It is possible to adjust the contents of ash, acid-insoluble ash, and mare ethanol extract by devising ways to prepare the crude drug after harvesting. However, the properties of a crude drug are a fixed standard that cannot be changed by adjustment. The standards of the original Angelica plant is limited to only two species: Yamato Angelica and Hokkai Angelica, as reported in JPXIII-2 (1997). The difference in the properties of the two species as a crude drug are the appearance, such as color and shape, aromaticity and taste. There is also a notable difference in part of the internal geometry. The property standard of Angelica stated in JP is the standard for evaluating its quality. Therefore, if the properties of the crude drug Hokkai Angelica, or the differences between the two species, are presented in JP, it is believed that the quality evaluation for Angelica would be more specific.
Due to the progress of plant chemistry studies in recent years, the constituents of Angelica have been identified and chemical structure determined. The active elements have also been clarified and the assay system established. The author believes that the results of these plant chemical building-block studies will be contribute to judging the quality of Angelica and providing a reliable chemical quality evaluation method.
In 1990, the Science Council of Japan made recommendations to establish a research system consisting of members from industry, academia and government to revitalize drug discovery research. Following an investigation by the government, in particular the Cabinet Secretariat, a drug discovery support network and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) were established. Measures and research funds for drug discovery research that were previously divided amongst the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry came to be managed unitarily and operations became more efficient.
In the drug discovery support network, drug discovery support programs similar to overseas drug discovery support organizations have been developed. Additionally, a coordinator with experience in drug discovery research in industry introduced translational research for practical applications. One issue regarding the drug discovery support network, was how to actively communicate with the industry. In order to resolve this issue, setting up a specialized section or organization was proposed by the authors.
In addition, it was considered effective to exchange information on research projects that companies stopped during the research and development phase, and consider adaptation to other diseases by utilizing AMED resources and networks. It is hoped that the most innovative pharmaceutical products are created through the inflection of Japan's future drug discovery support networks throughout the world.
Specific techniques known as Saiseihigen are reported as a measure for Mine Worker's Disease at the Iwami-Ginzan Silver Mine (Omori-cho, Oda City, Shimane). One was to boil four kinds of medicinal herbs with vinegar and water, and to send the medicine in the form of steam into the tunnel during ventilation.
The other was to use have the workers use a mask, Fukumen, which included sandwiching plum meat in the mask. As a result, it is reported that both the air that was ventilated became fresher and dust suppression were realized. Neither the aim nor the assumed effect of the application of steam medicine, the main subject, were mentioned in a classical book on herbs, so inference was used. For dust suppression, it was argued that moisturization using steam and acid steam acted as a dust suppression agent. The author argues that the effects of countermeasures against dust prevention, which are carried out today, such as humidification and the use of dust suppression agents, were obtained. It is noteworthy that implementation
of countermeasures resulted in a foreseeable effect.
Religious pharmacy is a new subject in the field of Human Social Pharmacy and is defined as pharmacy related to religion. The author first selected the eight major religions: Shinto, Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Confucianism, and Taoism. He then focused on 18 events related to religious pharmacy that are included in the encyclopedia, History of Pharmacy, which was edited by him and associates in 2016. The division of these events by religion are as follows: Shinto, 3; Buddhism, 7; Christianity, 5; Brahmanism (ancient Hinduism), 1; Buddhism-Hinduism, 1; and Taoism, 1. Based on analyses, 9 of the 18 events involved religious medicines and the remaining events involved Gods, Buddha and men related to pharmacy. Next, the effective functions of religious pharmacy are discussed; especially that of Love, which is a requirement for being a pharmacist as a member of a medical team both at present and in the future. Finally, the author suggests how religious education could be incorporated into the curriculum for pharmacy students.
This paper discusses a distinguished entrepreneur, Gohei Tanabe the 12th, who came from Dosho-machi, Osaka, Japan. His efforts led to the establishment of Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation. His activities regarding pharmaceutical trading and manufacturing, which were advanced compared to other medical merchants, are discussed while making comparisons with them. This paper also tries to clarify his source of pioneering spirit over the history of his life along with his management activities.
After being introduced by H. Ahrens & Co., he started trading salicylic acid and established a stable marketing position with pharmaceutical companies. He intended to manufacture medical materials together with importing materials from western Europe. He finally succeeded in starting a pharmaceuticals manufacturing firm, the first of which was in Dosho-machi.
The paper also explains that he started by importing chemical materials from western Europe, and then expanded activities to manufacturing pharmaceutical materials in his own company. He was involved in a joint-ventures that focused on quality management, Osaka Yakuhin Shiken Kaisha and Osaka Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha, which later merged with Dainihon Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha. He also founded a pasturing cattle business as a healthcare division.
He was highly motivated and his leadership contributed to propelling the manufacturing of medical materials. After his brother died during an experiment, he had his own son inherit the name of his brother, and the company never stopped manufacturing pharmaceutical products.
In view of the above discussions, this paper considers Gohei Tanabe the 12th to be the pioneer of Japanese pharmaceutical manufacturing. This paper focuses on his entrepreneurship, which enabled the company to evolve to into a research and development company throughout the Meiji and Taisho eras.
His advanced achievements were viewed as a lighthouse for medical merchants who tried to become pharmaceutical manufacturers.
In modern England, people bought popular medicines from community pharmacies without needing a prescription. In this report, the formulae of nine representative popular medicines are explained. As with many medicines the formulae changed over time. It is revealed that many popular medicines contained aloe, a laxative with a bitter taste that was familiar to British people, and that some of the medicines were still being used at the end of 20th century.