Morizo Ishidate was born in the city of Aomori on January 24, 1901, the third son in his family. As the 16th Director General of the NIHS, he announced his decision to reform the organization and implemented this action in 1966. In September 1970, as the president of the Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council, he decided to stop the use of all quinoform preparations. On May 21, 1973, he held a historic talk with Dr. Taro Takemi. After the meeting, the separation of dispensing and prescribing functions opened a new chapter in
pharmaceutical history. Such a heroic and noble life may be due to his faith. In April 1922, he entered Doushikai, a dormitory belonging to Tokyo Imperial University. Yoshinosuke Konishi was his best friend in the dormitory. They joined a bible class directed by an American missionary, Miss Laura J. Mauk. In September 1947, at the age of 49, Yoshinosuke decided to devote the rest of his life to being an evangelist. After that time, Morizo supported him for 33 years. At the age of 70, Morizo confessed his belief of Jesus Christ' s resurrection from the dead based upon following words in the bible, Therefore, if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation. The old has passed away; behold, the new has come, (2 CORINTHIANS 5 : 17). On July 18, 1996, he passed away at the age of 95.
Scurvy, a vitamin C deficiency, was rampant during the age of discovery in Europe. In the mid-17th century, Pasqua Rosee, the first coffee house in London, put an ad in the newspaper Publick Adviser clearly stating, It (coffee) is excellent to prevent and cure dropsy, gout, and scurvy. A Netherlands trade merchant carried the information to Nagasaki, Japan, along with coffee beans harvested in the Netherlands’new territory, Java Island. A Japanese physician in Nagasaki, Dr. Kai Hirokawa, translated the information into Japanese in his new book, Dutch Medicines, published in 1803. According to the ancient documents stored in Wakkanai City, Japan, the coffee beans were distributed to Tsugaru Clan soldiers who were
guarding the northern coastline from 1855 to 1856. The purpose of the distribution was the prevention of scurvy and dropsy. As the result, none of the soldiers died from scurvy during the winter of 1855-1856. This paper discusses the pharmacological relationship between coffee micronutrients and vitamin deficiency syndrome.
Yakumi and Ryouri are common vocabulary in modern Japanese. However, examples of their usage in terms of the Japanese meaning have not been found in general Chinese classics. Rather, conventionally they have been understood as kanji vocabulary originating in Japan. Therefore, through investigating and examining the sources and examples of both words, I found that they were derived from the original meanings of the Chinese words both in China and Japan, and the current meanings were adopted in Japan. It is very interesting to study the history of pharmacy and see in the processes and background that food was considered as a drug.
In order to investigate the roles of quality requirements for antibiotic products in Japan, from historical and hygienic aspects, we examined and analyzed how technology and knowledge in the production and quality control of penicillin were introduced from the United States of America, applied, and further developed.
Owing to the strong support of Colonel Crawford Sams, the chief of the Public Health and Welfare Section of the Supreme Commander for Allied Power/General Headquarters, via the Ministry of Welfare in Japan, the technology and knowledge were acquired from an experienced leader, Dr. Jackson W. Foster, and as a result, domestic production of penicillin was successfully achieved in amounts required to meet national demands sufficiently within three years in a devastated post-war-torn Japan.
Based on the consensus that penicillin should be dealt with as biological products similar to vaccines and antisera, the quality standards for penicillin were enacted as the Minimum Requirements for Penicillin (MRP) on the 1st of May 1947. Due to the development of penicillin production technology, the quality standards of penicillin provided by the MRP were revised often to higher levels; content of the active element from no less than 60 units/mg (purity 3.8%) to no less than 1,430 units/mg (purity 89.7%). Regarding the penicillin preparations, the content of the active ingredient per vial was changed from 30,000 units at the beginning, to 100,000 units in January 1948, to 3,000,000 units in December 1950, and two preparations containing 200,000 units and 1,000,000 units per vial are currently available, according to clinical convenience.
The present Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) was promulgated in October 1960 and enforced in February 1961．Thereafter, PAL has been frequently revised, was renamed the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Act (PMD Act) in November 2013, and the PMD Act was enforced in November 2014. It describes the change of reference to Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) based on the sequence of revisions of PAL for approximately 50 years. Although the purpose of PAL in 1960 was to control and regulate drugs, quasi-drugs, cosmetics and medical devices (drugs, etc.), and to contrive proper use, it did not include rules regarding PMS. Thereafter, to assure the quality, efficacy and safety of drugs, etc., to promote research and development of orphan drugs, etc. and to regulate designated substances were added to the purpose of PAL over a period of time. At the time of establishing the PMD Act, to assure the quality, efficacy and safety of regenerative products, to promote their research and development, and to prevent the onset and spread of hazards to public health and hygiene through the use of drugs, etc. ”was added to the purpose. Simultaneously, the matters of control and regulation using PAL were increased whenever PAL was revised.
Additionally, the PMS systems, such as adverse drug reactions reporting, drug reevaluation and drug reexamination, and the Good Post-Marketing Surveillance Practice (GPMSP) regarding the enforcement standards of PMS, etc. were initiated by regulatory directions and legislated after their establishment. Moreover, an infection reporting system and early-phase pharmcovigilance, etc. were added to the PMS systems. Furthermore, GPMSP was divided into the Good Vigilance Practice (GVP) for marketing license conditions and the Good Post-Marketing Study Practice (GPSP) for enforcement standards regarding post-marketing investigations and clinical trials, and both are regulated.
Valproic acid (VPA) and sodium valproate (VPA-Na) are used for the treatment of various things today, such as epilepsy and manic-depressive states. Moreover, use has expanded to a variety of applications, such as the prevention of migraine headaches. As a result, a high demand has been maintained. The chemical structure is a branching low-grade saturated fatty acid, which is simpler than other psychotropic drugs.
VPA is called 2-propyl-pentanoic acid and 2-propyl-valeric acid under the IUPAC system, and is derived from Valeric acid. This time, the author researched transitions in the standards and testing methods for VPA and VPA-Na in JP, USP and BP. It was found that each country?s pharmacopoeia described a detection test for substances related to VPA. It can be explained that VPA is derived from Valeric acid based on the test contents. Valeric acid is a component of Japanese Valeriana and Valerian root. It is believed that there is a sense of value as the origin of VPA is Japanese Valeriana and Valeriana root.
After the long isolation in the Edo era, the new Meiji government tried to import science and culture from western countries. In the field of medical science, Kanpo, Chinese medicine, was abolished and western medicine was introduced in Japan. A medical system was established in 1874, but the division of prescribing medicines and dispensing them had not been introduced yet, and this situation prevented the increase in newborn pharmacists and solid pharmaceutical education for a long time. However, when the division of prescribing and dispensing medicines started in the late 1980s, the demand for pharmacists increased and a six-year pharmaceutical education system was introduced in 2006. The core curriculum that was established about 10 years ago had many problems, but the system was revised in 2013. The goal of the efforts is to improve the situation regarding the quality, quantity and contents of clinical pharmaceutical education for the new generation of pharmacists to come over the next 10 years. It is important to look at the pharmaceutical education of Japan in light of that of France, where the division of prescribing and dispensing medicine, and the pharmacy itself had been established in medieval times, focusing on the history of the educational system and requirements for pharmacists.