This in vivo study aimed to investigate local and systemic immune responses induced by sperm in cows after artificial insemination (AI). Initially, 12 multiparous Japanese Black cows were subjected to intrauterine AI (AI group, n = 6) or saline infusion (control group, n = 6). The uterine body and horn ipsilateral to the ovulatory follicle were mini-flushed with 2 ml of RPMI-1640 medium at different time points (0, 1, 6, 10, 24, 48 h, and 7 days after AI), centrifuged, and the sediments were examined under a light microscope. Vaginal smears were prepared at 0, 1, 6, and 10 h after AI to investigate the sperm backflow. Subsequently, another experiment was conducted by assigning cows to three groups: intrauterine AI (AI group, n = 5), heat-inactivated AI (Heat-AI group, n = 5), or saline infusion (control group, n = 5). Blood samples were collected, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were separated and analyzed for gene expression using real-time PCR. The results showed that most sperm were rapidly transported either forward into the uterine horn or backward into the vagina within 1 h after AI. The PMNs migrated into the uterine lumen 6 hours after AI. Only active sperm-induced proinflammatory responses in PMNs and PBMCs via upregulation of TNFa, IL8, IL1B, and PGES and downregulation of IL10 at 6 h after AI. These data provide evidence that sperm generate transient proinflammatory responses locally in the uterus and systemically in the peripheral immune cells, which may be prerequisites for uterine clearance, embryo receptivity, and implantation in cows.