The preparation of nano/micromotor systems has been a hot topic in nanotechnology and biotechnology for the last decade. This review explains the underlying physics of the nano/micromotors, which is completely different from that of conventional macroscale motors. Additionally, the authors introduce various types of nano/micromotors, especially chemical reaction propelled motors.
As Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) increases its utilization as tool for the simulation of particulate materials in a variety of processing unit operations, there is a continuous focus on develop robust methodologies for model calibration to guarantee reliable predictive results. This paper focus on providing insights on advantages and limitations on typical approaches for calibration and validation. The calibration process using a series of small scale tests was then validated experimentally and numerically utilizing independent application tests.