The Advanced Mobility Research Center (ITS Center), Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo is promoting advanced mobility researches integrated with vehicle engineering, traffic engineering, information technologies. The researches are based on coordination among human, infrastructure and vehicle, modal-mix and cooperation among industry, academia, government and private sectors. Targets of researches are to achieve “Safety and Security”, “Low Emission”, and “Comfort and Healthy”. This paper introduces studies on ITS using Mixed Reality Traffic Virtual Experimental Space and proving ground.
Many problems are closely associated with the mobility including rapid aging of the population, depopulation, low carbon society, environment-conscious society or energy-saving society, the safest society of road traffic in the world etc. in twenty-first-century. There are high expectations for next-generation vehicles as typified by electric vehicles becoming solutions to the above problems. However, the automobile industry which is a typical serial industrial structure and Japan's largest industry lasted for a century could change to a parallel industrial structure. This also could shake the foundation of a key industry in technology trends or globalization. The overview of the automobile industry and the paradigm shift in society and economy is described through developments of next-generation vehicles in this paper.
Infrastructure and Vehicle Cooperation System in Japan, the world's most advanced, reached a new stage. Because, Introduction of ITS-OBU and ITS Spot has the ability to run multiple applications with the dedicated short range communication (DSRC) equipped with ETC. In addition to its basic function such as Car Navigation Systems, VICS and ETC, this ITS-OBU has Dynamic Route Guidance, the world's first Safe Driving Information Provision, Internet Connection (map updating, implementation of local tourism), Probe-data Collection and Credit Card Payment. It has the various potential that can be applied to commercial services such as roadside gas stations and fast food as well as public service so far. This paper discusses the roadmap of how to solve any social issues by ITS-OBU.
We have developed a driving simulator where Image-Based Rendering and Model-Based Rendering is combined. To achieve this, we realized realistic drawing and an efficient compression technique based on eigen images. This time, we developed removal efficient technique to get a better result and a technique which greatly reduce the sense of incompatibility in the curve. As a result, we succeeded in the automation of most of the fabrication process of rendering data, so we can convert the image data of a long section into the rendering data in a short term and use it for the driving simulator. In this system, we can reduce the cost which requires to model than before.
We have developed a driving simulator where Image-Based Rendering and Model-Based Rendering is combined. We investigated influence how does a reality of proposed system which using photographed images changes by user study. In addition, we researched influence on a reality and strangeness which driver feels by each driving operation. Furthermore, we investigated how long distance shifting from the taking a picture path driver feels strange to the presenting scene.
In this paper we are introducing a nanoscopic traffic simulation model, that aims to support investigations on traffic phenomena, based on driving behavior, that are difficult to model in a higher level. Steering angle and throttle position are the main parameters to model driver behavior. To gather such information, the model has an integrated driving simulator that allows driving in a simulated 3D environment. Vehicle tracking from the driving simulator is used to update the parameters of the simulation, to achieve a realistic representation. In this study, we have used the model to investigate the congestion causing sag curve phenomenon.
This study was to develop a traffic simulation system which covers Japan nationwide road network. As for the execution of such huge scale traffic simulation, there are barriers of the computing resources, such as memory size and calculation speed. To overcome those barriers, we have extend the existing traffic simulation software with the promising grid computing technology. In this paper, we divide the target area of the OD table describes the system behavior and vehicle information exchange between the computer, be completed by dividing a area reported a method using the OD table.
The coordination of signal programs at adjacent intersections is a multivariate optimization problem with many constraints. To assess the quality of optimization procedures, the impact of different performance measures, and the effect of the quality of the input data, a methodology has been developed to compare different offline optimization strategies using complete information of the traffic flow. The complete information is obtained by using a traffic flow simulation. To have a benchmark for a given optimization function, the best possible coordination for given conditions is computed using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). Different strategies can then be compared to this benchmark.
This research builds unique Driver Models specialized on intersection that have ‘stop’ and ‘go’, ‘right-turn’ and ‘leftturn’ behaviors and implements its model on KAKUMO microscopic simulator. In addition to this model, the vehicle generation model on open road is re-validated based on the traffic data, which were observed around real intersections. Based on these observed traffic data, this research validates intersection driver models with its parameters.
In this study, a specific traffic flow condition observed just before rear-end collisions is identified, which can be utilized for reduction of those crashes by means of detecting the risky situations in advance and warning drivers. The study site is a sag which is located at upstream of Tanimachi JCT on Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway Route 3 (Tanimachi JCT direction), where rear-end collisions frequently occur. Using pulse data collected by traffic detectors, speed fluctuation characteristics of individual vehicles were analyzed. A speed drop and its propagation to upstream were considered for identifying the risky traffic condition, and the frequency of that situation on the study site is presented in this paper.
In this paper, we analyze highway detection system under different traffic scenarios. Traffic data collection depends on not only sensor technologies, but also where detectors are placed. Data validity highly varies on different traffic conditions and detection locations. To assess the detection efficiency, a generic data supply function is defined to describe detection system performance. In addition, speed data collection is selected as an example to determine a specific data supply function which depicts the relationship between speed detection variation and traffic state. The supply function is validated by a case study based on Tokyo Metropolitan Expressway.
The purpose of this research is to examine an effectiveness evaluation of safety improvement and conflict reduction by vehicle cooperation system based on immune network. Specifically, the evaluation is verified by TTC(Time to Collision) and PICUD(Possibility Index for Collision with Urgent Deceleration) indicating the safety of the vehicle behavior. In addition, macroscopic viewpoint with the traffic flow and mean velocity of vehicles are adapted to evaluate conflict reduction. In their evaluations, micro traffic simulation is used. The simulation includes driver models at merging section.
This paper presents an international comparative study on driver risk exposure during intergreen intervals at signalized intersections in Japan and the United States. Severity of traffic conflicts as well as the interaction between the last clearing vehicle and the first entering vehicle at the change of phases was empirically analyzed and compared. Furthermore, a new method of determining the optimal all-red time was proposed by incorporating interaction time that accounts for the effect of the clearing vehicle on entering time of the first entry vehicle when a clearance failure occurs.
Ohashi Junction in Metropolitan Expressway is a road tunnel connecting underground and a skyway with quite complex structure, which started to be opened to traffic in March 2010. It is composed of elliptical double loops with four-layered storey, where the one-round distance of the loop is about 400 m. A precise 3-D geometric model of such a road structure can be a basic information for any purposes, such as verifying traffic safety measures, etc. We tried and succeeded to construct its dense 3-D model without using any external positioning devices such as GPS and gyro sensor. We equipped a laser range scanner on the roof of the scanning vehicle, and repeated by turns to make a scan with stationary state, and to move forward. The scanned data are optimally aligned by geometric processing so that they compose a whole structure. The time needed for the manual process was less than a day for one-way direction.
In the urban scene modeling, removing foreground obstacles (e.g. pedestrians, telegraph poles, roadside trees, etc.,) is important problem for 3D reconstruction, privacy protection, etc. We propose the method which can automatically remove foreground objects for such problem from the on-vehicle video data. Since an input data is a video stream and an urban scene is mainly composed of planar surfaces the method can effectively separate the objects by using the Spatio-temporal image analysis. To show the effectiveness of the method, several experiments using real data are conducted, which resulted in a successful separation of complicated objects.
We propose a method to estimate relative position of the self vehicle using on-vehicle video camera. When a short-length on-vehicle video is given as a “searching query,” this system returns a part of video stream from video database as a “searching result.” Existing methods had some problems, i.e. requirement for good initial value, difficulty in dealing with lateral displacement of a vehicle and lighting condition. Our method take advantage that buildings around obstruct the GPS wave, and solve the problems by introducing “spacetime feature” where the appearance of the buildings are described in time-series. The experimental result showed that the system could determine the position with less than 2 m error when the lighting condition was similar.
Autonomous personal vehicle systems face many challenges due to complex and unpredictable environments. Thus, much of such platforms' computational resources are wasted on trying to localize in a given environment, slowing down the navigation phase. To overcome this problem we propose intelligent assistance, a novel scheme to assist autonomous mobile platforms by providing localization information externally. In the proposed scheme, the moving targets are detected using a laser range finder and camera based sensor unit and tracked using particle filter based technique. Calculated localization is fed back to the mobile platform as assistance information. The preliminary experiments show the validity of the proposed scheme for mobile robots.
This paper describes a framework of behavior understanding at railway station by association of location semantics and postures. The framework can interpret a time-series behavior of objects using results of the object tracking by the S-T MRF model. The proposed framework succeeds in understanding the abnormal behavior assumed at the station, and is shown the effectiveness as a result of experiments according to the image that imitates the behavior at the station.
In this paper, a general algorithm for pedestrian detection by on-board monocular camera which can be applied to cameras of various view ranges in unified manner. The Spatio-Temporal MRF model extracts and tracks foreground objects as pedestrians and non-pedestrian distinguishing from background scenes as buildings by referring to motion difference. During the tracking sequences, cascaded HOG classifiers classify the foreground objects into the two classes of pedestrians and non-pedestrians. Finally, we get information about trajectory of pedestrians. We apply our methods to actual sequence, it perfume over 90% in detect rate and about 10% in false alarm rate.
We have applied the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method, the numerical simulation method, in order to analyze the sound field of a car interior. In a previous research, digital filter impedance model was applied based on the assumption of a locally reacting boundary. Here, we introduce a new method also considering wave propagation inside the seats. After examining the validity of the proposed method thorough 1-D sound field and a single seat model as well, measured and calculated impulse responses inside the car cabin were compared. The feature of the new method both in theoretical and in practical is cleared up through the study.
To improve the acoustical environment inside heavy trucks, psycho-acoustical experiments on noisiness to the interior noise and its effect on listening to the radio were performed using the 6-channel recording/reproduction system which has been devised to realize 3-dimensional aural impression in an acoustic laboratory. For the subjective tests, interior noises inside heavy trucks during actual running were recorded at a passenger-seat by changing the running conditions. The experimental results of the subjective hearing tests were examined using various noise indicators. Besides, the sound localization for a warning horn sound transmitted into the driver's cab was examined using the same sound field simulation system.
Since 2006, we have made a progress on ‘driving-space improvement project for safety and comfor’ at Metropolitan Expressways. The road marking 'Optical Dots' were installed on a two-lane highway in downstream at Bijogi Junction zone of Saitama Omiya line in Feb. and Sep.'08. As we reported at ITS-Sympo'08, the result of reduction in speed was observed soon after then. We report the experiment about the influence to drivers’ visual perception and action by using Driving Simulator generating Virtual Reality of highway.
Recently, ITS technologies aimed for eco-driving have attracted much attention in the research community. However, the previous studies are limited in that they do not take into consideration circumstances under which a driver is driving a vehicle, but only the vehicle's statuses and drivers' driving behaviors such as running velocity, acceleration, deceleration, steering, etc. are considered. Circumstances such as traffic conditions, road alignments or traffic lights should also be considered. In this work, we propose a technique for evaluating eco-driving skill which takes into account not only vehicle's statuses and drivers' driving behaviors but also circumstances. It is validated based on a basic experiment with a driving simulator in this study.
Automatic platooning is studied to develop energy-saving technologies of intelligent transportation systems. In the project, a universal driving simulator is applied to simulate the automatic platooning for its safety evaluation. In this paper, we attempted to use bio-signal indices of surface electromyogram of masseter muscle and perspiration rate of palm of subjects for evaluation of driving sensation for the automatic platooning simulation. The experiments were completed by static and moving base simulator for emergent deceleration of four meters trucks distance during the automatic platooning. The elementary studies suggested that the bio-signals are effective to evaluate driving sensation for automatic platooning simulation.
The traffic simulation, CO2 emission simulation, and database are the major key technologies for evaluating properly the reduction effect of CO2 emission from automobiles caused by introducing some ITS measures. The development of these technologies are made individually, therefore, the condition of such assessment tool is not clear. This research project has four objectives; development of individual technologies, clarifying the condition for assessment method, obtaining the international agreement in such methodology, and establishment of such standardized assessment methodology. This paper describes the outline of intermediate progress of this five-year research project started from April 2008.
As parking is an indispensable action when we drive a car, it should be paid attention as well as driving. However, ITS services for parking are not put into practical use well compared with other ITS driving support services. This paper proposes “Parking ITS” which enhances parking space and parking action, and discusses its possibility. By promoting Parking ITS, an improvement of not only vehicle traffic but also comprehensive transportation network and a vitalization of urban area by transferring users are expected.
We developed a parking facilities management system which is able to provide a discount service for a person who wants to use several parking facilities for tourism. Recent ITS progress, such as unique ID of ETC has been making it come true. The system is expected to contribute to revitalization of Center Commercial Zone and promotion of tourism, because the system makes it possible that encouraging more stops of round-tour and extending the time of stay. This report describe a feature of the system which will become a one of the main application of the second-stage ITS in Japan.
Dynamic traffic control with ITS technology can make travel time estimation on highway more reliable. Especially, when drivers would like to avoid traffic congestion in urban areas, dynamic traffic information may be useful for them. In this study, subjects are supposed to drive their passenger cars from Joban expressway to Tokyo city center. First, current traffic condition of study area is explained. Then, when subjects are provided with estimated travel time and Park and Ride information, behavioral changes of subjects are examined through Stated Preference (SP) survey. Finally, effects generated by P&R are discussed through “Activity Based Approach”.
The authors have been developed prototype Personal Mobility Vehicles (PMVs) as environmentally and human friendly next-generation transport modes. The results of simulated CO2 reduction effects in the case of introducing PMVs into three metropolitan areas, and basic considerations on the adaptation of PMVs to aging societies have been reported.
Prototype of energy-saving urban transport system using roller coaster technologies to provide short distance trips has been developed with seat arrangements on the test track. Modal-mix concepts to take linkage with diverse transport modes using ITS are also provided.
On the two-wheeled vehicle, the backing monitor system that assumed the human body to be a communication route was achieved by using the electrostatic bond in a quasi-electrostatic field. We have considered the composition in which shape and the arrangement of the electrode, by which the electrostatic bond with the electrode of the human body and the terminal became larger for the electrostatic bond of the human body and the body of a vehicle. Through human body communication, this backing monitor system will enable to eliminate complex wiring. There is also another feature that the noncontact communication is possible between the human body epidermal and the electrode by using quasi-electrostatic field.
The concept of a novel dynamic park-and-ride service which is scheduled in ITS FOT model city Kashiwa and is realized with ITS on-board units and 5.8GHz DSRC roadside beacons is explained. Based on the review of park-and-ride services, scenario study environment with driving simulator has been introduced.
The Nagasaki EV&ITS Project aims to be the ‘next generation, futuristic sightseeing driving’, where, due to depopulation and tourism stagnation at a remote island, electric vehicles are utilized which are suitable for locations listed as candidates for world treasures and heritage spots. The developed cooperative ITS (Smartway) platform, a basis for ITS OBU and RSE with DSRC (ITS Spot), is used for clean and efficient electronic vehicle driving. This paper reports on ITS OBU system developments, ranging from guidance on a rapid charging battery system to tourist spots.
Nagasaki prefecture, as one of eight EV&PHV towns, is now promoting “Nagasaki EV&ITS project” to construct practical penetration model of EV and PHV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle) especially in isolated islands. In this project, Goto islands were selected as the first subject area and “driving tour of the future,” which enables tourists to drive around the islands ecologically, is now being constructed, utilizing their tourist attractions including churches registered in the candidate list of world heritages. On the first step of the project, 100 EVs and 2 PHVs with ITS onboard devices installed and 15 quick chargers on 8 spots were introduced. These EVs and PHVs are mainly utilized as rent-a-car for tourists and obtain plenty of uses by general people with high frequency. Those uses revealed numbers of practical problems and their solutions. In this paper, those results of such practical penetration are reported.
The present study proposes athe automated hauling system of a chamber net by means of compressing air into a flexible hose net beneath the chamber net in set net fishery. As a result of tank model test with a 1/100 scale model, the hose net rose like an S shape to corner fishes gradually. The fundamental knowledge on the relationship between the water current condition and sinking or floating time of the chamber net, the distance of the movement of the flexible hose net could be obtained.
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