Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) has a possibility to reduce earthquake damages. In this paper, a survey on use of EEW by companies during the Great East Japan Earthquake was conducted to propose strategies for promoting effective use of EEW. The effect of reducing damages due to the Great East Japan Earthquake by using EEW was higher in factories than other facilities of the companies. However, their use of EEW was insufficient because many companies broadcasted EEW inside the buildings only with the higher expected intensity levels. In order to promote the use of EEW, the proper understandings of EEW, cost reduction of receiving devices and increase in accuracy are important. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
The Use of Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) in manufacturing industry can reduce the physical and human damages due to coming earthquakes. However, so far, the number of the companies using EEW is limited. This paper aims to discuss the strategies for promoting effective use of EEW in manufacturing industry. At first, the types and regions of industry with high probability of industrial accidents were identified based on the industrial disaster statistics. Then, the types and regions of industry with high priority of using EEW were analyzed and the strategies for promoting their use of EEW were discussed. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, new designations of Tsunami evacuation spaces/buildings are increasing as a part of the revisions of regional disaster prevention plans of local governments. For better Tsunami evacuation planning, this paper evaluated the effect and problems of tsunami evacuation spaces/buildings in Shizugawa area, Minami-Sanriku Town, Miyagi Prefecture during the 2011 tsunami. The distance from each building in the area to the evacuation space/building was calculated by GIS databases. Designation of the tsunami evacuation buildings in the flat area could reduce evacuation distances for some residences and its potential effect of reducing casualties were verified. However, only use of existing buildings as tsunami evacuation buildings had limitation in order to achieve 5 minutes’evacuation from all the residences.[This abstract is not included in the PDF]
The Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) has started to be provided to the public since October １st, 2007. After the Great East Japan Earthquake, the number of the warning drastically increased. However, a lot of warnings failed due to the problems of seismometers by power outages and tsunami attacks. In this paper, regional tendency of the broadcasted EEWs was analyzed. The regional difference was observed in the number of EEWs, the probability of their success/failures. A lot of EEWs were broadcasted in the east Japan although EEW has never provided in almost all the west Japan area. Finally, the number of the broadcasted EEW was compared with the results of a questionnaire survey to residents, drastic increase in their perception and receiving experiences of EEW was observed after the Great East Japan Earthquake. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake showed the importance of mutual cooperation of various regional organizations for responding to a lot of travellers who have difficulty returning home in case of disasters. Before the 2011 earthquake, support corps for these travellers had been established in the area near several terminal stations in Tokyo. Various stake-holders such as local community groups, companies, commercial and industrial associations near the terminal stations had participated in the support corps. This paper reviewed on how these support corps behaved just after the Great East Japan Earthquake and discussed their expected roles in the future disaster. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake induced liquefaction causing damage to residences and buried lifelines in the entire filled ground in Urayasu city, Chiba prefecture. Since immediately after the earthquake, authors have conducted SWS test at several monthly intervals at the site in the particularly serious damaged area. The result of SWS tests suggests that the fill sandy soil having a high fine content was liquefied, and the penetration resistance of its layer which had remarkably decreased due to liquefaction recovered two month after the earthquake. Moreover, the possibility of re-liquefaction is discussed based on the value of liquefaction resistance in this report. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
The 2011 off Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake hit Tohoku and Kanto regions, and caused a number of liquefaction-induced damages to the residential houses, roads and life lines. This study investigated the factors on liquefaction-induced road damage in Urayasu city, east of Tokyo, where severe liquefaction occurred during the earthquake. In order to measure the road settlement, two sets of Digital Surface Models (DSMs) obtained by airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) surveys before and after the earthquake were compared with pile-supported RC buildings and bridge piers as templates for aligning the two sets. The result showed that the extent of the road damage by liquefaction extracted by DSMs was reduced as the thickness of roadbed (pavement and subgrade) that could not be liquefied during the earthquake increased.
The March 11th 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake has caused serious soil liquefactions over a long stretch of the Pacific coast line from Tohoku to Kantou regions. To be prepared for future liquefaction hazards, it is very important to compile precise records of liquefaction realities in a quantitative manner. An attempt was made to detect soil subsidence in the Tokyo Bay area, using raster-graphic images from airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) surveys before and after the earthquake. Focusing on Ichikawa city, Funabashi city, Narashino city, and Chiba city, the first part of this paper describes the process for making the soil subsidence map. The latter half then compares the obtained soil subsidence map with the findings from field surveys.
At Susono city hall building in Shizuoka prefecture, the seismic retrofitting such as the injection of cement milk into the underground cavity and the installation of the base isolation system to a superstructure is carried out. This report summarizes the results of the ambient vibration measurement in the stage of before, during and after seismic retrofitting to investigate the changes of the dynamic characteristic of the building. As a result, it is revealed that the predominant period, damping ratio and sway-rocking ratio of the building increased due to the installation of the base isolation system, while the injection of cement milk has little effect on the dynamic properties. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
A rammed earth technique is a traditional architectural technique to build soil structures by compressing soil materials in a form. In this study, laboratory tests on a traditional rammed earth wall material were carried out with different soil suctions induced by relative humidity. The unconfined compression test results showed that peak strength and initial modulus of the material increased as a result of increase of suction. The unconfined tension test results showed that tensile strength also increased with increase of suction. The relationships between soil suction and cohesion initial modulus, and tensile strength were formulated on the basis of the test results. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
A rammed earth technique is a traditional architectural technique to build soil structures by compressing soil materials in a form. In this study, finite element analyses on seismic behavior of traditional rammed earth wall were carried out by using mechanical properties of rammed earth material subjected to high suction. In this study, two cases of relative humidity around the wall were set at 75 %rh (Case LS) and 15 %rh (Case HS) due to suction depends on relative humidity. Partial tensile failure occurred at the bottom parts of the wall by acceleration input of 200 gal and 340 gal in case LS and case HS, respectively. The seismic performance of rammed earth material depends on relative humidity environment. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
It is necessary to consider the conditions where educational facilities are located and the relation between the individual situations where educational facilities were placed to make effective and possible efficient disaster measures planed by educational facilities. The improvement of imagination capacity for disasters is important to achieve that. This paper reports the results of the workshop for improvement of disaster-imagination-capacity in the case study of Shoto Junior high school in Shibuya ward. The results show that the current problems and the necessary measurements are listed and shared among teachers from the both points of the daily-life and the events. Also, we discussed that the preparedness and the mitigations are important for the next disaster. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
The purpose of this research is to create and grow up attractive new disaster prevention market which contributes to the disaster risk reduction by using the knowledge of universities and industrial people. Authors and some company managed the research group named as “Research committee for the creation and growth of disaster business market" supported by the foundation for the promotion of industrial science of IIS. The all participants share and exchange their technologies or information,and analyze the technical problems and the constitutional problems for the development of new market. According to those results, we discussed the strategy for the new disaster prevention business model. In this paper, in order to build the environment to analyze disaster market from the comprehensive view, the disaster profiling model by using WBS is explained. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
Local governments prepared temporary housings for the people who lost their house due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. However the supply of the temporary housing were delayed.
The purpose of this research is to develop effective and efficient supply system of temporary housings by improving the business of local governments.
As a case study, the business process of Ishinomaki city was analyzed in this paper.
As a result, the preparing of the building site was the main factor which cause the delay of supply.
And also, we developed the management model for working processes and resources based on the project management technique.
This idea was applied to verify the proposed model for Ishinomaki city. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
Although authors has been continuing pointing out since the “Great Hanshin Earthquake” about the danger of ceiling collapse, many casualties have occurred by the “Great East Japan Earthquake” in 2011. The prevention from fall of ceilings is urgent need. Many of seismic reinforcement methods of the past for suspended ceilings are to reinforce ceiling frame above ceilings without work space, and those problems it has were actualized by the “Great East Japan Earthquake”. In this paper, seismic reinforcement with parabolic cables for existing ceilings is proposed, and the validity of it is proved by the shaker test. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
There is no method to delineate the safety line to the impact due to fall of ceilings, therefore it is difficult to judge if installed ceilings are dangerous. Authors have done drop tests using various materials for ceilings except for plaster boards because of its fine particles to establish the safety criteria of nonstructural components in large enclosures using human tolerance index. In this paper, drop tests via plaster boards from 1~16m height were reported. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
Huge amount of digital data of the Great East Japan Earthquake is provided by the highly-developed digital data delivery system and storage technology. But as of now, the method and/or technique for analysis is not yet satisfactory. This paper proposes a running spectrum technique of text data for the purpose of analyzing changes or trend along the disaster management cycle. For verification of this technique, news reported by the newspaper Fukushima Minpo has been used. The result shows the characteristics of data change in the time domain.
The elasto-viscoplastic-creep constitutive equation based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics is formulated for the gray cast iron as used in diesel engine parts. Lots of material parameters in the constitutive equation are determined by using the uniaxial tensile/compressive, the creep, the stress relaxation and the fatigue test results. The identified model is applied to the creep fatigue life prediction of a cylinder head used in diesel engine parts which is made of gray cast iron. The part 1 describes the identification of the damage model based on the material test results for the gray cast iron. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
The elasto-viscoplastic-creep constitutive equation based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics is formulated for the gray cast iron as used in diesel engine parts. Lots of material parameters in the constitutive equation are determined by using the uniaxial tensile/compressive, the creep, the stress relaxation and the fatigue test results. The identified model is applied to the creep fatigue life prediction of a cylinder head used in diesel engine parts which is made of gray cast iron. The part 2 proposes the method for simulation for the creep fatigue life prediction of the cylinder head for diesel engine made of gray cast iron. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]