In terms of mutual assistance, welfare facilities are expected to play a role as supporter for vulnerable people in disaster. However, there is conflict between the care for welfare facilities users and that for vulnerable people in the local community. Also, it is said that welfare facilities tend to avoid the city area and to be located in the disaster prone area. This characteristic of location can affect inefficiently for mutual assistance of disaster. This research identifies the effects of location of welfare facilities on the support for vulnerable people in disaster. GIS analysis and questionnaire survey are conducted to welfare facilities in Shizuoka prefecture as case study. First, through GIS analysis, characteristics of welfare facilities which are located in disaster prone area are extracted. Second, using the result of GIS analysis and questionnaire survey, effect of location of welfare facilities on support for vulnerable people in disaster is investigated. This study finds that location can affect to support for vulnerable people in disaster through the following two effects. One is the effect to assembling of facility staff during disaster, and the other is to get supports from neighbors. From these results, two evaluation flows are suggested. One is to evaluate the risk of the facility which is located in disaster prone area. The other is to evaluate the capacity of the facility to support for vulnerable people.
In case of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake disaster, many municipalities could not grasp the necessary disaster response activities that vary rapidly after the disaster occured, so that most of them were overloaded and did not assinged correctly. Although many attempts to estimate the damage by large-scale disaster have been done, the attempt of quantitative assessment of the disaster response activities after the occurrence of disaster remain in a limited range. In this study, the authors have proposed “disaster response activities estimation equation” for estimating the workloads of disaster response activities. In addition, the authors have constructed “disaster response activities assumed model” that enables to grasp the change of disaster response activities. As a result, it has become possible to specifically simulate efficient human deployment by reflecting the algorithm to the model.
This study evaluates the disaster prevention measures by focusing on the number of mitigation effects of deaths by analyzing the 445 disaster-related funding by Japanese government. The reduction effect of deaths by the implementation of the amount of funding or one project is calculated for the preparedness, recovery/ reconstruction and emergency response separately. Also, the world disaster related funding since 1990 is evaluated in terms of the reduction effects of death. As a result, the funding for preparedness consisting to the large portion of total funding contributes to reduce the death and the Japanese financial support placing the fifth position in the total amount of funding stands at first grade in terms of the death toll reduction. These results can be obtained by this method in terms of the death reduction effects compared to the conventional analysis such as in the point of total amount of funding or prominent activities. This approach can explain the high evaluation of Japanese funding to invest the promotion of prevention or preparedness as the developed country of disasters.
This thesis aims to construct a method to measure motivation degree of an individual resident about community planning and his/her level of quality as a player of planning. It also intends to know the factors for the state and transition of those components peculiar to each resident. Measurement components in this method are resident’s subjective impression of motivation degree and 4 objective elements about quality as a player of planning; autonomy, view of scale, view of time, and sharing intention of information and thought. Based on these components, the investigator interviews the target residents by semi-structural interview. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this method, 15 residents in Kamaishi and Shin-koiwa were selected as the object to apply this method. Consequently, the transition of motivation and 4 elements and the factors for them of each individual resident was clarified. Moreover, useful information about the region was acquired which can help improvement of the situation of community planning.
The process of disaster recovery involves the dynamic interaction of multiple factors which often remains hidden from the surface. Furthermore, due to empirical limitations, recovery outcomes are often superficially understood. To have an effective recovery policy it is essential that policy makers recognize this dynamic aspect of disaster recovery. This paper presents a work-in-progress multi-agent simulation model for recovery, which is developed by taking into consideration the pre-disaster community characteristics of a disaster-hit region; the type of damage; and the recovery policies applied to the situation. By using a multi-agent model, macro level phenomenon can be understood in terms of micro level decision making of agents. This novel method allows new opportunities for disaster recovery research including understanding the inter-relationships among the above mentioned parameters, as well as providing a means to evaluate recovery policies for a given disaster situation.
SMS, one of the mobile phone functions, has been recognized as useful mean for public warming in rural areas. However, there are little research have been conducted to clarify an actual effect of the SMS. This paper visualizes a result of the demonstration experiment which sent SMS to people who live in a rural mountainous area. The result clarifies that SMS can reach the area where a loudspeaker, current warning mean in the area, cannot reach when its sound is bothered by rain. Additional analysis including visualization of the SMS penetration in chronological order is required for further understanding on the SMS in warning.
In the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 not only Japanese, but Foreigners living in Japan was also significantly affected. There is many foreigners that relocate to western Japan or leave Japan. This behavior of foreigners had a great impact on the socio-economic activities of Japan. Meanwhile, Central Disaster Prevention Council expected Tokyo metropolitan earthquake （M7 extent of earthquake that occur in the southern Kanto） occurs in 70% of the probability of less than 30 years. On the other hand, by the policy of Prime Minister Abe to increase the acceptance of foreign workers and Olympic will be held at Tokyo in 2020, foreigners and tourists living in Japan will be increases. There is a need to keep kneaded preventive measures for no to reply the damage of the Great East Japan Earthquake. In this study first, we calculate the foreign exposure population on Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa Prefecture at the time of occurrence of Tokyo Bay northern earthquake. Then, after We understand the support of disaster prevention for foreigners by check the Tokyo, Saitama, Chiba, Kanagawa, and Ibaraki Prefecture web site, We interviewed Indonesian embassy in Japan and conducted a questionnaire survey of Indonesians who lives in Japan （excluding students）. On the basis of the analysis, we propose a disaster prevention measures of foreigners for future Tokyo metropolitan earthquake.
Three-dimensional FEM analysis is carried out on the enlarged shield tunnel with deep overburden considering the changes in the structural system and load system. Action of the ground and deformation of the tunnel lining and the retaining wall are examined and compared by constitutive models of both a linear elastic and Duncan-Chang. As a result, the application of the constitutive models considering strain dependency and confining pressure dependency of soil and review of parameters are required to verify action on the tunnel lining such as earth pressure and interaction between ground and lining.
A trench excavation was conducted at Itako City, Ibaraki prefecture, to observe the trace of boiled sand which elevated along cracks in the silt layer, due to liquefaction at Great East Japan Earthquake. Undisturbed soil samples were taken from the sand and silt layers of about 2 to 3 m deep. X ray CT scanning was conducted for the undisturbed specimens to observe the micro structure of liquefied soil. The image obtained from X ray CT indicated the path of boiled sand erupted from liquefied sand layer. The overall structure of liquefied layer is mostly disturbed in contrast with laminar structures observed in a non-liquefied layer.
A number of sand boiling occurred in the coast of Tokyo Bay at Great East Japan Earthquake. a series of model tests was conducted to simulate the phenomenon of sand eruption from the crack of pavement. a model sand layer was prepared in the small soil chamber and the surface was covered by an acrylic lid with a slit opening. water penetrated into the model sand ground from bottom to top. when the hydraulic gradient well exceeded critical hydraulic gradient, sand eruption has started. in this study, liquefaction was generated by the 1G shaking table test. it was observed that pavement subsidence with liquefied ground settlement was necessary for the sand eruption. Horizontal movement of sand grains at the surface of liquefied layer was observed in the early stage of sand boiling. The water velocity at the crack of pavement seemed to be one of the most important factors.
In recent years, request of resisting earthquake performance becomes higher and higher for infrastructures. Especially, reinforcement congestion is occurred due to the overcrowded bar arrangement on the joint of beam-column. Mechanical anchorage is very useful to solve this problem. But, reasonable design code has not been clearly indicated when cover concrete is very thin. Also, many issues need to study such as static bond performance, behavior of pullout and failure pattern. At this research, analysis for bond of straight bar anchor and mechanical anchorage has been done by three-dimensional discrete analysis method. Capacity of bond, development of cracks and failure pattern has been made clear by simulation.
There is a lack of studies examining the recovery period of a corporate organization that has experienced natural disasters. In this study, we used a semiparametric bias adjusting method to quantitatively assess the influence of past disaster experiences on the length of organization shutdown periods post Great East Japan Earthquake. The results show that post disaster review of natural disaster experiences of organizations allows for shutdown periods to be cut down from a month and a half to 3 months. This study indicates the significance of disaster review processes and the evaluation of efficient strategies to accelerate recovery processes and reduce indirect damages of corporate organizations.
On March 11th, 2011, the big earthquake occurred in the waters off Miyagi, Japan and huge tsunami came to Sanriku seacoast. After this disaster, government asks people to escape from tsunami not using car, but walking. However, many people used car to escape to hill in the cause of big earthquake and many traffic jam were to be found. From this background, we suggest to block several road links and making people using car in the case of emergency inconvenience. People can walk through blocked road, but car is not allowed. In the result of this suggestion, we can expect that people will tend not to use the car in the case of emergency and the number of links which cause traffic jam will be decreased. In this research, we will call into account of the choice of how to escape, and we set a goal of minimization of total time of evacuation thinking all evacuees.
This research aims to propose indices to evaluate the quality of services （QOS） of pedestrian crossing flow under both congested and uncongested conditions. Walking costs in crossing flows, which are not properly validated by conventional fundamental diagrams, are described by walking stability indices. The empirical data analysis revealed that the angle between directions of two pedestrian crossing flows has significant impact on QOS. A microscopic pedestrian behavior model, which represents the above characteristics, is proposed to evaluate QOS under different traffic demands and crossing angles.
Stochastic resonance is a physical phenomenon through which the throughput of energy within an oscillator excited by a stochastic source can be boosted by adding a small periodic modulating excitation. This study investigates the feasibility of evolvable stochastic resonance for improving energy harvesting. The motivating hypothesis for this work has been that evolvable stochastic resonance can be efficiently realized in a bistable mechanism. However, the condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is conventionally defined by the Kramers rate, and this is a shortcoming because of the necessity and difficulty of white noise density estimation. A bistable mechanism has been designed using a novel explicit analytical model which implies a new approach for achieving stochastic resonance. Experimental tests have validated this by showing that the addition of a small-scale force to the bistable system excited by Gaussian white noise apparently leads to a corresponding amplification of the response, and this is what we now term ‘evolvable stochastic resonance’. The study therefore indicates that evolvable stochastic resonance may be a promising way to improve the performance of an energy harvester under certain forms of noise excitation.