SEISAN KENKYU
Online ISSN : 1881-2058
Print ISSN : 0037-105X
ISSN-L : 0037-105X
Volume 61 , Issue 6
Showing 1-30 articles out of 30 articles from the selected issue
Introduction to Special Section
Research Flash
  • Kensuke TSUCHIYA, Kentaro TAKAYAMA, Shinya KIMURA, Keisuke NAGATO, Mas ...
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 955-958
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       The authors developed a device to move a probe along 3 axes with a manipulator that has a resolution of 1nm under an electron microscope. The device was developed to measure mechanical properties of nanowire. The mechanical properties of nanowire were measured by applying force to it and deflecting it with the above device. The results were Young’s modulus of 7.5GPa and rupture stress of 18GPa. And we clarified that nanowire breaks in brittle mode. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Kentaro MIYAZAKI, Yasuhiro TANI, Yasuyuki KAMIMURA, Kensuke TSUCHIYA
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 959-964
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Diamond polishing tapes are commonly used for edge finishing of zirconia ferrules. There remains a problem that the diamond tape has too short tool life due to weak bonding strength. Then we propose a new method to make a diamond tape applying electrodeposited nickel foil method. This method is very useful to make a long metal foil continuously and commercially used for manufacturing of a copper foil. In order to improve the tensile strength of the foil, we performed composite electroforming utilizing glass fibers. It was confirmed that the concentration of abrasives could be increased by using Ni-electroplated diamond abrasives. A series of experiments to finish zirconia ferrules proved long tool life of the developed polishing tape. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Sumio SUGIYAMA, Tadahisa MERA, Jun YANAGIMOTO
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 965-966
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       With the growing calls for the zero emission, waste material will have to be reduced more and more in the future. The idea of the recycle or reuse of the metal scrap is also being put in the same flow of the zero emission. The semisolid metal forming process is useful (a) for drastic simplification of the manufacturing process, (b) for easily working of intractable material, and (c) for processing of the functional material and the composite material. In this study, the possibility of the design material manufacturing by the semisolid process is shown by using minute metal scraps. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Katsuyoshi IKEUCHI, Jun YANAGIMOTO
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 967-969
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Die quenching process is aiming at manufacturing a high-strength steel parts with good accuracy by combining hot forming with rapid cooling due to the heat conduction from the hot sheet to the dies. This process is quite promising one, however, technological problems such as lower productivity resulting from the temperature rise should be solved for the greater development of this process and wider area of application. As we need precise information about the die quenching process, such as the transient change in temperature during forming and hardness distribution of the formed and quenched product, we carried out the die quenching experiment by a high precision material testing machine and water-cooling dies. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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Research Review
  • Ryo MINAKI, Hiroshi HOSHINO, Yoichi HORI
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 971-976
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       In recent years, the demand for safer vehicles has increased. According to traffic accident reports prepared by the Metropolitan Police Department in Japan, almost all traffic accidents are caused by human errors such as driver negligence or operational mistakes. Therefore, future technologies need to be able to precisely detect driver’s mistakes and adopt active control in order to increase vehicle safety. Active front steering (AFS) is an effective technique to stabilize motion control after the detection of dangerous motion in a vehicle, such as a slip. However, if AFS intervenes excessively during the steering process, it becomes difficult to resolve the interference between driver steering and automatic steering by AFS. As a result, vehicles are at present rarely equipped with AFS. This paper proposes a reactive torque control method based on driver sensitivity to a human-friendly AFS system and discusses how an experimental device was used to verify the effectiveness of this control method.
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  • —damage suppression and shape control—
    Yoji OKABE
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 977-983
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
        In recent years, smart structures that can adapt effectively to the changes in the environment have been developed by many researchers. In this paper, the author reviews the researches on smart composite structures with shape memory alloys (SMA) integrated into the structural members. By using the recovery force caused by the shape memory effect or the energy absorption characteristic of the super-elasticity of the SMA, the damage progress in composite structures can be suppressed or the shape of the members can be controlled. Especially, lightweight adaptive structures that the authors have developed by combining honeycomb-shape SMA and composite laminates are mainly introduced.
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Research Flash
  • Yohei YOSHIMURA, Masaru ENDO, Hidetoshi YOKOI
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 985-988
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       By using the glass-inserted mold and an ultra-high-speed video camera, the melt flow in the cavity is directly observed at a high video rate of 1,000,000 fps. In addition, a magnified observation from directions of the parting and side view of the cavity can make clear the melt flow phenomena at even higher accuracies. The authors have, for the first time, clarified a peculiar melt fracture phenomenon and rebounding phenomenon of elastic behavior in GPPS resins by visualizing and analyzing the behavior of resins immediately after they are injected out from a submarine-gate into a cavity. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Masaki TAKAHASHI, Masaru ENDO, Hidetoshi YOKOI
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 989-992
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       By using glass-inserted mold and ultra-high-speed video camera system, the filling behavior of GPPS and LCP resins were observed in the connector-shape cavity incorporating numerous thin rectangular obstacle-plates. As the results, the unique resin flow behavior around the obstacle-plate and correlation between the obstacle-plate displacement (slanting behavior) and resin pressure were made clear. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Akira IKEDA, Janggil KIM, Jacques FATTACCIOLI, Nobuyuki TAKAMA, Beomjo ...
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 993-996
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Microcontact printing has been shown to be a viable lithographic technique for the fabrication of microstructures, through the deposition of molecules by conformal contact between a surface and an elastomeric stamp. However, the diffusion of the molecules on the substrate and the deformation of the stamp during the contact are severe drawbacks when considering the resolution of the technique. In this paper, we show the effect of the diffusion of the molecules on the size of gold patterns on silicon and we observe in-situ the deformation of the PDMS stamp in liquid and air environment using an interferential microscopy technique. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Yasuhiro KAMATA, Toshiyuki OBIKAWA
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 997-1000
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       The flow analysis of oil-mist in MQL finish-turning was conducted using a general purpose code of computational fluid dynamics, and then, the amounts of oil-mist reached near the cutting edge under different blowing pressure conditions of mist supply were compared and related with the levels of flank wear. In the result, it was shown the optimal range of the blowing pressure of oil mist in MQL finish-turning was existed. In the analytical result, the amount of oil-mist reached near the cutting edge was the highest value when blowing pressure was 0.4MPa. On the other hand, in MQL finish-turning of Inconel 718, the tool life was the longest at blowing pressure of 0.4MPa. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Toshiyuki OBIKAWA, Tsutomu SEKINE, Tomomi HAKUTANI, Shogo NUMAJIRI
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1001-1005
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       A desk-top type of forming machine was developed for single-point incremental micro forming, which did not require any die and any backing plate. Single point tools with round tips 5-100 μm in radius were used for micro forming. Forming conditions, that is, tool rotational speed, in-plane feed speed and stepwise axial feed were optimized to maximize the forming limit or elongation of thin foils. As a result, blank sheets of aluminum foil 12 μm thick was able to elongate by 128% and 74%, for forming miniature pyramids with bases of 1 mm x 1 mm and 100 μm x 100 μm, respectively. Miniature letters were also formed successfully on aluminum foil 6.5 μm thick. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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Research Review
  • Toshiki NIINO, Akifumi NAKAMURA, Masatoshi IMAI
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1006-1010
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       MID (Molded Interconnect Devices) had been developed as three dimensional circuit boards, and, currently, are used as functional devices such as multiband antennas in cellular phones. Aiming at application of MID to mechatronic devices such as actuators and sensors, the authors research on novel production technologies required for the purpose. This paper reports a circuit structuring methods on shadowed surface, its application to an electrostatic actuator and another novel production method using sacrificial material.
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Research Flash
  • Shuhei NISHIDA, Noriyuki OKABE, Dai KOBAYASHI, Hideki KAWAKATSU
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1011-1014
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Dynamic atomic force microscopy (DFM) is a powerful tool to observe various solid surfaces with high-spatial-resolution down to atomic scale in all environments (vacuum, air and liquid). Use of higher cantilever vibration modes is an effective method for reducing amplitude, which enhances the sensitivity of DFM. In this paper, we present an optically based DFM system combining photothermal excitation and laser Doppler velocimetry for utilizing the higher modes in liquid. By using the second flexural mode with the frequency of 1 MHz, we successfully reduced the tip amplitude down to 99 pm, and achieved atomic resolution DFM imaging of a cleaved mica surface in purified water. Cross sectional analysis of the images shows that individual atoms on the surface have small height differences up to 60 pm. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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Introduction to Special Section
Research Flash
  • Muneyoshi NUMADA, Kazuo KONAGAI
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1017-1020
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       It is important to forecast the run out-distance of landslides mass to reduce the landslide disaster. This research aims to analyze the key parameter that control the run out-distance of landslides mass. The numerical analysis is an effective approach to analyze the dynamic mechanism of the landslide. Material Point Method (MPM) is used in this research to cope with large deformation of soil. The parameters to be analyzed in MPM model are geometry, physical property and frictional coefficients to observe the contribution to run out-distance. The numerical result of different length and width of landslide mass shows that the run-out distance of landslide mass is affected by the ultimate load capacity. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Muneyoshi NUMADA, Kazuo KONAGAI
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1021-1024
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       It is difficult to measure the physical property of sliding surface directly, especially for flat zone (deposition zone) due to the obstacles such as road, houses, tree and so on. However the run-out distance of sliding mass is affected by the frictional coefficient of flat zone. The method to evaluate the frictional coefficient on the deposit zone by applying buckling theory including self weight of landslide mass is proposed in this research. The method is consisted from two processes. Process1 is judgment of slope failure type occurring buckling failure or Rankine’s type. Procdss2 is evaluation of on the deposition zone from solving the equilibrium of landslide mass left on the slope. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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Field Report
  • Kazuo KONAGAI, Takeshi ARITA, Yumiko MATSUMURA
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1025-1034
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       An earthquake of Magnitude 6.3 occurred about 35 km east off the west coast of the Suruga Bay at a depth of about 23km. Though the shakes “6 minus” on the JMA scale recorded at Izu, Yaizu, Makinohara and Omaezaki cities were noticeably large in years past, no house was reportedly flattened, and the prefectural task force was disbanded two days after the earthquake. However, since the area has been under a serious threat of a possible mega-quake described in the “Act on Special Measures concerning Countermeasures against Large-scale Earthquake” enacted in 1978, this event can be viewed in such a way that we have gotten a rare opportunity to check all weak points revealed this time. This report provides a brief overview of the damage caused by the earthquake and discusses geological conditions that may have been reflected in the damage distribution patterns. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Yoshiro OGI, Yasushi OBA, Ken’ichi KAWAGUCHI
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1035-1041
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       This paper reports investigation results of three large roof buildings whose non-structural components had failed during the earthquake in Suruga-Bay of Japan in August 11th of 2009. While very little damage to building skeletons was reported, a number of failures of non-structural components such as a big louver, ceiling panels, and lightings was came out. Such failures occurred even in the area where the occurrence of a major earthquake had been geologically estimated. Because a risk of injury to people by falling of non-structural components is urgent, their improvements are immediately necessary. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Muneyoshi NUMADA, Koji NOMURA, Miho OHARA, Kimiro MEGURO, Kiyoshi TAKA ...
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1042-1046
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       The earthquake centered in Suruga bay in Shizuoka Prefecture with depth about 23km and magnitude 6.5 occurred on August 11, 2009, causing few causalities and extensive damage to buildings in Shizuoka Prefecture. The main reason why the structural damage was not so heavy was due to the short-period wave. Institute of Industrial Science, university of Tokyo (IIS) observed the seismic response by the acceleration meter. The response spectra of the main shaking are calculated and the relationship between the ground motion and structural response are determined. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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Research Flash
  • Kotaro SAKURAI, Navaratnarajah SATHIPARAN, Kimiro MEGURO
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1047-1050
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Unreinforced masonry structure, typical non-engineered structure, is one of the most popularly used constructions in the world. It is also unfortunately, the most vulnerable to the earthquakes. In this research we conducted a series of experiments to verify the suitability of PP-band (Polypropylene band) retrofitting for masonry made of shapeless stones. PP-band is commonly used for packing and it is available all over the world at very low price. To understand the basic property and the effect of PP-band retrofitting method, material tests consist of shear, tension, compression tests, and diagonal compression and out-of-plane tests were carried out using masonry wallettes made of shapeless stones with and without retrofitting. Based on the experimental results, it was found that PP-band retrofitting improved the overall stability and ductility of the stone masonry structure. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Navaratnarajah SATHIPARAN, Kotaro SAKURAI, Kimiro MEGURO
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1051-1054
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Unreinforced masonry is one of the most used construction materials in the world. It is also unfortunately, the most vulnerable during earthquakes. In seismic prone regions of the world, large number of casualties resulted due to the collapse of this type of structures.
       Several retrofitting methods for masonry structure have been proposed to improve strength, ductility and energy dissipation capability. However, in developing countries, strengthening masonry structures should be economic, the retrofitting material accessible and the local available workmanship used. Considering these points, a new retrofitting technique has been proposed based on the use of polypropylene bands (PP-bands) , which are commonly utilized for packing. In order to evaluate the effect of retrofitting masonry walls by PP-bands, a series of diagonal compression tests were carried out on masonry wallettes made of shapeless stones, with and without retrofitting as a means to assess its seismic strength. The initial results of these are reported in this paper. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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Field Report
  • Miho OHARA, Yasuhito JIBIKI, Naoya SEKIYA, Tetsutaro SUMI, Kimiro MEGU ...
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1055-1060
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       The 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake was not only the first case that Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) could be successfully broadcasted before the arrival of strong tremors, but also the first case that EEW was broadcasted through loudspeakers by J-ALERT system. In this research, a questionnaire survey was conducted to understand the effectiveness of EEW broadcasting by J-ALERT system in Shonai Town, Yamagata prefecture. It is verified that broadcasting by J-ALERT system is useful to convey EEW widely at the same time. However, residents’ understanding on proper response to EEW was insufficient. It is necessary to enhance residents’ capacity to take proper action after the warning. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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Research Flash
  • Junichi KOSEKI, Jina LEE, Takeshi SATO
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1061-1064
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Earthen walls using compacted soils form a part of world heritage temples in Japan. Recently, natural soils are being re-evaluated as construction materials having capacities to accumulate humidity and heat. On the other hand, an earthen wall in Nishinomiya Shrine collapsed during the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. Since the mechanical properties of lime-mixed soils that are used to construct earthen walls are not well understood, a series of unconfined compression tests was conducted in this study to reveal the effects of lime and water contents, curing time and compaction conditions. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Junichi KOSEKI, Hiroyuki TANAKA, Kazutaka OTSUSHI, Naoya NAGAO, Masaru ...
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1065-1068
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       In order to study the performance of levees reinforced with steel sheet piles under high water condition, a series of model tests was conducted on the seepage properties of high water before and after applying large amplitude excitation history. It was verified that, irrespective of the excitation history, the sheet piles installed at the levee crest are effective in preventing the breakage of levees caused by overtopping. Effects of drainage work at the levee foot in preventing its seepage failure were also confirmed. The seepage properties of the subsoil underlying the levee under high water condition were not affected by having a history of large earthquake load. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Ruta Ireng WICAKSONO, Reiko KUWANO
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1069-1074
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Small strain stiffness of laboratory soil specimen can be obtained from elastic wave measurements in non-destructive manner. Continuing study on laboratory dynamic measurements using Bender Element and Trigger Accelerometer (Wicaksono et al., 2008), this study focuses on evaluating damping ratio of Toyoura sand. For this purpose, two different methods including Multiple Arrivals method for dynamic measurement and Cyclic Loading method for static measurement were employed. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Laxmi Prasad SUWAL, Reiko KUWANO
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1075-1080
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       A disk shaped piezoceramic transducer, called plate transducer, was developed and installed in a triaxial apparatus. The newly developed plate transducer is capable of measuirng both P and S wave on an identical laboratory specimen. The stiffness measurements using the plate transducers were conducted on two kinds of granular material and compared with other types of measurement, including Trigger Accelerometer method and static measurements. It was found that the plate transducers offered well comparable results on fine sand. For coarser material, however, it was suspected that bedding error between the transducer and the tested material caused underestimated measurement of wave velocities. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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Research Paper
Research Flash
  • Gouhei TANAKA, Kazuyuki AIHARA
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1081-1084
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       It is estimated that the Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 emerging all over the world in this year would further spread. Although production of pandemic vaccines is intensively promoted, its maximum amount is limited. Therefore, preventive measures other than the vaccination are also considered to be significant for decreasing the number of patients. In this study, under the assumption that the force of infection can be reduced by patients wearing a mask and staying at home, air ventilation, careful gargle and hand-wash etc., we estimate the effects of them using an epidemic model. For instance, in the case that the basic reproduction number is 1.4, reduction of the force of infection by 10% corresponds to approximately 16 million pandemic vaccines and results in decreasing the morbidity by about 25%. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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  • Michael HENRY, Yoshitaka KATO
    2009 Volume 61 Issue 6 Pages 1085-1086
    Published: 2009
    Released: February 23, 2010
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS
       Just as the term “sustainability” remains difficult to clearly define, the concept of sustainable concrete material is also difficult to define. The term “green” is often applied in order to convey that the environmental impact has been reduced, such as “green building” or “green energy.” In the case of concrete materials, “green concrete” could then be taken to mean concrete which has a reduced environmental impact or enhances the natural environment. However, the environment is just one aspect of the more-general term sustainability. This paper takes a look what ideas and approaches have been taken to develop “green concrete,” and also discusses other aspects of concrete and concrete construction which may not qualify as “green” but are still important to consider for improving sustainable practice in the concrete industry. [This abstract is not included in the PDF]
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