A single pelagic juvenile (23.1 mm standard length) of a lophiid fish, collected from 100–115 m in depth in the East China Sea, was identified as Sladenia zhui Ni, Wu, and Li, 2002, originally described from the East and South China Seas, on the basis of meristic counts [I-I-I-I, 10 dorsal-fin rays (2 post-cephalic spines); 7 anal-fin rays; and 19 pectoral-fin rays] and mitochondrial DNA sequences. Reported here for the first time, juveniles of Sladenia Regan, 1908 are uniquely characterized by inflated, balloon-like skin surrounding the head and body, and undeveloped head spines. The Japanese names “Daruma-ankou-zoku” and “Daruma-ankou” are proposed herein for the genus Sladenia and S. zhui, respectively.
A new nematode species that is lung parasitic to a bufonid toad, Rhabdias kafunata sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Miyakojima island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Although the new species was previously identified as R. incerta Wilkie, 1930, it is clearly distinguishable from that species by the characteristics of body proportion, buccal capsule, and esophagus. Additionally, the new species differs from other congeners inhabiting East Asia and the Russian Far East in the following features: longer body length, cup-like buccal capsule, longer esophagus length, presence of thickened anterior muscular part in esophagus, cuticular inflation less prominent in region posterior to small cephalic cuticular inflation, middle part of body and tail tip, and tail long and tapering. Partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 12S rDNA genes were provided as DNA barcodes for the new species.
A single specimen of Thrissina dussumieri (Valenciennes, 1848) collected from the Ogasawara Islands, previously reported and briefly described ca. 90 years ago, has since been largely overlooked in studies of Japanese engraulid fishes. The specimen was re-examined and described in detail, and the record of T. dussumieri from Japanese waters is confirmed. The new standard Japanese name “Tsurugi-katakuchi” is proposed.
During the past three decades, ten specimens (174.1–235.1 mm standard length) of the Bluespotted Hind Cephalopholis cyanostigma (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1828), distributed in the eastern Indian and western Pacific oceans, have been collected from the southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan, although the species has been formally recorded from Japanese waters only on the basis of a single photograph, with the northernmost specimen-based record being Taiwan. The Ryukyu Island specimens, described here in detail, represent the first specimen-based records of C. cyanostigma from Japan, in addition to the northernmost record of the species. The new standard Japanese name “Samidare-hata” is proposed for the species.