The effects of pH on the protein solubility, film-forming ability of lizardfish viscera (stomach and intestines) and physico-chemical properties of the biodegradable films were investigated. The new approach could successfully yield protein-based films from lizardfish viscera at a narrow pH range (2 - 4, and 13) without the need for a protein extraction process. All films were observed to completely block UV light transmission. Films at pH 13 were hydrophilic, exhibited the lowest mechanical strength, highest deformability, and greatest yellowish color, while films at pH 4 were mechanically stronger, slightly deformable and showed superior light transmission barrier properties compared to other film samples. The substantial contribution of disulfide bonds to the formation of the three-dimensional network of films at pH 4 was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Thus, films from lizardfish viscera can be utilized as a renewable packaging material in food systems.
本研究では, 大気圧下での飽和液体窒素へのプール沸騰熱伝達に及ぼす表面被覆層の影響を実験的に検討した．被冷却物体として，直径25 mm の銅球を用いた．銅球表面の被覆層として，氷層および霜層を用い，これらの厚さを変化させた．得られた結果として，冷却曲線と沸騰熱伝達特性に対する氷層の影響が顕著であることが確認できた．また，霜層を被覆層として用いた場合，遷移沸騰領域の熱流束が著しく増加し，核沸騰領域および限界熱流束も増加した．
This paper provides an analysis of the adsorption kinetics by using image processing algorithm. Rapid adsorption kinetics is increasingly important because it offers a good mass transfer hence improves the efficiency of the sorption system. For adsorption kinetics, it is required to determine the first stage of the measurement precisely. Therefore, selecting the proper method becomes essential. Simple experimental setup was developed for evaluating adsorption equilibrium and adsorption kinetics of Silica gel/water pair. The test apparatus comprises of adsorption cell, evaporator/condenser, piping line, and measurement devices for temperature and pressure. Silica gel types A was employed in the present study as the adsorbent material. A new method is proposed to calculate the adsorption kinetics by using the digital image analyzing. Algorithm for image analysis could semantically segment the adsorption process by creating images which represented the dataset for water level changes inside the evaporator.
Adsorption/desorption rate of vapor to adsorbent on an adsorption heat exchanger is one of the important characteristics in order to design and improve the performance of adsorption chillers and dehumidifying/humidifying desiccant systems effectively. In the present study, for a silica gel thin film adsorbent coated on an aluminum plate in a cross-fin tube heat exchanger, measurement of equilibrium adsorption of water vapor by TGA and measurement of adsorption/desorption rate by gravimetric method under different flow velocities of moist air were performed. The equilibrium adsorption was formulated with function of relative humidity. In addition, the overall mass transfer resistance related to both the mass diffusion in the film and the mass transfer in the boundary layer on the film was investigated. It was clarified that the influence of the resistance on the reaction rate appeared only at the beginning of reaction, and the resistance decreased with the increase of the velocity, especially in adsorption. Furthermore, the resistance in desorption was less than half in adsorption. Consequently, the resistance in the boundary layer was a negligible quantity for desorption when the flow rate was above 0.1 m ･s-1. Finally, correlations were proposed to predict these resistances.