People often talk of their views of nature. They scarcely touch, however, on their views
of artifact. It is strange because we human beings are surrounded by innumerable artifacts and are
extremely influenced by them in everyday lives. We can reasonably guess that people have their own
views of artifact. Therefore, if people do not aware of the views of artifact consciously, it should be
concluded that people believe they have already entire and precise knowledge about all artifacts and
need not discuss any more special views about them. The view of nature is what people perceive and
manage nature by. On the other hand, the view of artifact decides not only how to perceive and use
artifacts but also what to make artifacts. The last is the most important for the made is influenced by
the view of artifact and thus the artificial environment in the future will be decided by people’s view
of artifact. Because it is an urgent task for human beings to construct and maintain the sustainable
environment, it is crucial for us to understand the view of artifact at the present time.
This article discusses how human modeling can support social design that aims to solve
various social issues by implementing social institutions: new frameworks or new functions of society.
Human modeling, which was originally studied for describing and predicting individual performance,
has now extended its scope to cover group and social performance by many people. Social
design is crucial for our society facing serious problems, but the conventional way of social design,
which heavily relies on empirical approaches, is powerless in complicated modern society. It is
desirable therefore that more rational and predictive approaches for social design might have been
established. Since human performance that affects effectiveness of social institutions is a key factor
in social design, human modeling can be a hopeful tool for considering this factor.
The concept of SN (signal-to-noise) ratio is used like common sense in the field of communication
and signal processing. Recently, the term of SN ratio appears in the other fields; however,
the conventional concept is too strong to understand the new concept related to the original concept.
Is the SN ratio appeared in the various fields transdisciplinary concept? We discuss the similarity and
the differences of SN ratio used in the fields of control, statistics and social sciences, and consider the
ideal of SN ratio as a transdisciplinary technology.
This paper describes a strategy of optimal action of sensing process. The decision of an
action selection is made from an information theoretic point of view. Its goal is to reduce the number
and effort of the sensing steps to reach the final identification of the object condition among those
registered in the data base. We have chosen an information theoretic framework, motivated by the
fact that sensored data is not noiseless or ideal, nor can the effect of a certain action be completely
determined in advance. This is the common case for almost all sensing problems. We present the
strategy for an example of the object recognition process from observations of its images. In the
recognition, the entropy, which can be considered as the amount of the uncertainty of the object, must
be most rapidly reduced. This process is formalized in terms of evaluation of the mutual entropy.
This document describes a part of the researches accomplished by the committee on assistance
of symbiotic communication in TRAFST (Transdisciplinary Federation of Science and Technology).
The purpose of this study is to obtain hypotheses on the active fields and strong relations
between fields in science and technology in Japan. For this purpose, we extracted and visualized the
structure of topics on scientific and technologic researches from the database of researches in Japan.
This paper deals with a design optimization process with some experiments that are often
executed in design and development phase. In order to avoid repetition of experiments as possible,
Taguchi method has been proposed from a view point of robustness. And, Nakazawa method has been
proposed from a view point of optimal balance among multi-required specifications. However, these
methods have not been used together in practical engineering fields although bothmethods commonly
use the orthogonal array in the experimental design. There are rare studies of combinational use to
make the most of characteristic points of the both methods. In this paper, the characteristic points of
these methods are examined and arranged first. Then, an efficient combinational use of these methods
is proposed. A simple case study shows that the proposed method is useful for practical design and
A new method to analyze transformation processes of work procedures for on-site workers
engaged in organizational activities, based on the concept of the four levels of contradictions, is proposed.
Various contradictions, i.e., misfits between components of the activity system, might arise out
of and propagate throughout their activities, then induce some sorts of changes in the procedures for
the better or for the worse. The proposed method, focusing on the negative aspects of such procedure
transformation, represents every phase of a changing activity in terms of a diagrammatic triangle of
Engestr¨om’s activity theory, thereby visualizing the process of its changing with latent contradictions
can contribute to the in-depth analysis of organizational accidents. Within organizations, a human
plays variable roles as an agent that is an actor, an observer, a cognizer, and an interpreter, which
produces a complex organizational behavior. In order to model this, we introduce the subject of C.
S. Peirce’s semiosis, which is any form of activity, conduct, or process that involves signs, including
the production of meanings. The criticality accident occurred at the nuclear fuel conversion facility
of JCO (1999) is employed for an illustrative case to explain this method’s capabilities.