Asian Journal of Human Services
Online ISSN : 2188-059X
Print ISSN : 2186-3350
ISSN-L : 2186-3350
Current issue
Displaying 1-10 of 10 articles from this issue
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
  • Akemi ISOYAMA, Saeko KINUGAWA
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 1-17
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Midwives can be important sources of support for childbearing women and their families. This study aimed to investigate midwives’ training needs regarding the provision of this support type in Japan. A descriptive, observational survey study was conducted. We randomly selected 200 out of 1294 hospitals with an obstetrics department from a total of eight regions; sixty hospitals agreed to participate. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to midwives working in the hospitals. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. All the participants were aware of the importance of providing support to the family of a childbearing woman in acquiring new roles within the family. Meanwhile, the majority of midwives were concerned about whether the current support met families’ needs and would like to know the needs of the families, as well as the characteristics and methods of appropriate support, as part of their training. The results Highlighted that it is necessary to provide midwives with opportunities to reflect on their concept of family, share their experiences of providing support to the families with other colleagues, and learn from their colleagues’ experiences.
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  • Relationships between Food Types and Mobility/Cognitive Function
    Yuko FUJIO, Yoshiko ENOMOTO, Megumi KODAIRA, Yukie ENOMOTO, Kazutoshi ...
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 18-32
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    This study examined the relationships between the mental/physical functions of residents of special elderly nursing homes providing functional recovery care and food types. On comparing residents based on food types, the grades of care required were lower, and the levels of independence based on the activities of daily living (ADL) Independence Scales for Older People with Disabilities/Dementia were higher in the regular food compared with the special food and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube feeding groups. Furthermore, the daily fluid and dietary intakes were higher, the time spent out of bed each day was longer, and the levels of in/outdoor mobility independence, rates of in/outdoor mobility aid use, and rates of being able to communicate and recognize situations were also higher in the regular food group. The results clarified the relationships among food types, mobility, and cognitive function in older people requiring care. They also demonstrated that the mental and physical functions of those consuming regular food are higher, suggesting the importance of promoting regular food consumption in nutrition care for older people.
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  • Michiko KENJO, Naoko INANOBE
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 33-48
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Aim and Objectives: This study aimed to elucidate the current state of caring in nursing practice in Japan by mid-career generalist nurses following the implementation of a community-based integrated care system at an acute regional support hospital. Background: With the promotion of functional specialization of medical care throughout Japan, the mean length of hospital stay at acute regional support hospitals is decreasing. Understanding the current state of caring (consideration and concern) for patients by mid-career generalist nurses who promote nursing practice to discharge or transfer patients in short-term hospitalizations is important as it will help determine the impact on caring in Japan. Design: Qualitative descriptive study Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with six mid-career generalist nurses working at acute care hospitals in Japan. Narratives about caring (consideration and concern) for patients were recorded verbatim and were qualitatively analyzed using a qualitative inductive approach. Results: We determined five categories of caring (consideration and concern) by mid-career generalist nurses in Japanese acute care hospitals: respect for individual patients and protection of their safety, accurate observation of symptoms, working on the strengths of the patient, working on the strengths of the family, and having a good understanding of the role of an acute care hospital nurse. Conclusions: Assuming that respect for patients and the protection of their safety are the basis for mid-career generalist nurses at acute care hospitals, we found that with a good understanding of the role of acute care hospitals, mid-career generalist nurses have been entrusted with intervention for families and nursing care after discharge. We also found that concern for each terminal phase patient arises during the course of care, which is difficult to share. Caring (consideration and concern), which is the core of nursing care, arises through situations and relationships. In the event of hospital transfers or transitions to home care from short-term hospital stays, sharing information with the local individual in charge is an issue, and the continuity of caring in nursing practice should be examined from the perspective of the patients’ and nurses’ satisfaction.
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  • Miho YAMADA, Takeru ABE
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 49-61
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    This study aimed to determine whether the demands of emotional labor and its effects vary across disciplines of healthcare professionals, and to identify characteristics of health care workers with good psychological wellbeing. A self-administered cross-sectional survey was conducted involving 155 multidisciplinary healthcare workers at a rehabilitation hospital in Japan. The occupational differences in emotional labor and wellbeing (General Health Questionnaire: GHQ-12) among multidisciplinary healthcare workers were examined using ANOVA with Tukey post hoc comparison. Correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationships between demographic characteristics, emotional labor, sense of coherence (SOC), and wellbeing of participants. To identify factors predicting wellbeing, we generated two classification and regression trees (CART), with GHQ score (continuum variable) and a cutoff score of GHQ ≤ 3 as dependent variables. The SOC score was significantly associated with the GHQ score. There were no significant occupational differences in the wellbeing and emotional labor of healthcare workers. Participants' age was negatively associated with duration, intensity, and variety of emotions required. None of the aspects of emotional labor were significantly associated with SOC or wellbeing. In the CART analysis, participants with a SOC score › 50 had the highest probability of maintaining good mental health (GHQ ≤ 3). The study concluded that emotional labor demands and their effect are prevalent across multiple professions. Strengthening SOC is vital in ensuring the good psychological status of healthcare professionals.
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  • Yuji MARUYAMA
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 62-75
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    Healthy Japan 21 (second term) in Japan's health policy sets a target of 6,000 steps per day for women aged 65 years and older. In 2019, the average number of steps taken per day by Japanese women aged 65 years and older was 4,656. This study used the above average number of steps as the standard and examined the differences in physical and mental functioning between those who walked more than the standard and those who walked less. The hypothesis stated that the group with an average number of greater than 4,656 steps would lead a healthier life than the group with fewer steps. The participants were 52 physically independent older women living in a community. The participants' mean age was 70.94 ± 6.01 years. They were instructed to wear an accelerometer to measure their average number of steps and physical activity (PA) over a three-month period. The Lifecorder GS (SUZUKEN) was used as the accelerometer. Physical functions (grip strength; their ability to sit-up, bend forward, stand on one leg with their eyes open, stand on a chair for 30 seconds, complete a 10-meter obstacle walk, complete a 6-minute walk test; their toe flexor strength, and hip abductor strength) were also measured. Questionnaires were used to conduct (1) Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Assessment, (2) Quality of Life Assessment, (3) Psychological Assessment, and (4) Questions about Daily Life assessment. The participants were divided into two groups [high-step group (≥4,656 steps) and low-step group (<4,656 steps)] based on the number of steps they had completed daily. There was a significant difference (p<0.001) in the mean number of daily steps 9186.3 ± 2362.3 in the high-step group versus 4512.4 ± 634.4 in the low-step group. The PA of the high-step group was higher than that of the low-step group on all items. There was a significant difference between the two groups in ADL's total score. The difference in PA intensity between the two groups was significant, and there was a significant difference in View of Health Status. This suggested that the higher the PA, the higher the self-perceived health and physical fitness. The View of Health Status' results were consistent with the MOS Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF36) General Health’s results. There was a difference in the physical and mental health status between those who walked an average number of steps (4,656 steps) and those who did not. This was especially true for physical function. Therefore, the study’s hypothesis was supported. The results regarding the high-step group and low-step group showed that the low-step group also reached 10 MET hours per week. When Plus Ten is considered, it is recommended that older women in Japan walk approximately 6,000 steps per day.
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  • Yijie LIU
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 76-87
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    As the demand for childcare increases, the expectations placed on preschool teachers has also been increasing; this has proliferated stress and led to burnout among many preschool teachers. The literature on stress among preschool teachers consists of several contributors and associated factors. In this study, I focused on the stress caused by the difficulty in understanding and managing children with special needs and examined the effects of preschool teacher reflection on preschool teacher efficacy and stress related to understanding and managing children. For preschool teacher efficacy, as reflected by preschool teachers themselves, neither self-consideration nor self-consciousness had an effect on preschool teacher efficacy. Regarding reflection on children, child analysis had a significant positive effect on preschool teacher efficacy but child detection did not. For reflection through others, gathering information from others had a significant negative effect on preschool teacher efficacy but using other people’s information did not. Conversely, for stress related to understanding and managing children, regarding reflection on preschool teachers themselves, indicated self-consideration had a significant positive effect on stress but self-consciousness did not. For reflection on children, child analysis had a significant negative effect on stress but child detection did not. Regarding reflection through others, neither using other people’s information nor gathering information from others had an effect on preschool teachers’ stress related to understanding and managing children. These results suggest that preschool teachers’ child analysis can lead to cyclical reflection through the awareness of essential aspects, such as the ALACT model proposed by Korthagen (2001). Further, it was suggested that this kind of reflection may improve the sense of efficacy among preschool teachers and reduce stress related to understanding and managing children with various issues and characteristics, leading to high-quality childcare.
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SHORT PAPERS
  • Miwako HIRAKAWA, Umi KUDO, Yosuke KAMATA, Miho CIBA, Yoshiko NISHIZAWA
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 88-100
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    This study aimed to investigate the awareness of Bowel Dysfunction Care among care staff who participated in Bowel Dysfunction Care training and the actual state of Bowel Dysfunction Care. We conducted a questionnaire survey and collected data on the primary information on Bowel Dysfunction Care, the image of Bowel Dysfunction Care, and the Quality Indicators of Bowel Dysfunction Care. The sample included 17 participants (2 males and 15 females), with 9 participants (52.9%) having 10–19 years of experience, while 11 (64.7%) of them were nurses by profession. It was found that 15 participants had some worries or problems with Bowel Dysfunction Care (88.2%), 12 participants used the defecation checklist (70.6%), and 5 participants used the Bristol scale (29.4%). Although the trainees recognized Bowel Dysfunction Care as important and considered it rewarding, the average implementation rate of the Bowel Dysfunction Care Quality Indicators was 53.6% (SD=19.7). It was suggested that there is a need for educational support opportunities for acquiring knowledge and skills to improve the quality of Bowel Dysfunction Care.
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  • Toru SUZUKI, Yoshihiro FUJII, Kazuaki MAEBARA, Atsushi TAKEDA
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 101-107
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The aim of this study was to understand the prevalence and support status of students showing symptoms of selective mutism in special needs schools for students with intellectual disabilities. A questionnaire was sent to the principals of 12 special needs schools for students with intellectual disability in prefecture Akita, asking whether they had students showing symptoms of selective mutism and the kind of support provided. The results showed that six of the 12 schools had students showing symptoms of selective mutism, with a prevalence rate of 1.05%. Types of support provided included speech therapy and environmental adjustments. The results revealed that: 1) the prevalence of selective mutism is higher in special needs schools than in regular elementary and middle schools, and 2) better support is provided in special needs schools than in regular elementary and middle schools.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
  • In Jae LEE, Hyun Uk SHIN, Byeong Ro KANG
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 108-125
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to present the task of the employment policy for individuals with disabilities through the analysis of the current situation of employment policy for people with disabilities and the application cases of local governments in Korea. The Ministry of Health and Welfare, as well as the Ministry of Employment and Labor, have collaborated to design an employment policy for person with disabilities. Recently, several central administrative departments including the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, the Ministry of SMEs and Startups, and the Ministry of Culture, Sports, and Tourism have implemented employment policies for people with disabilities directly or indirectly. Based on the results of this study, the policy directions for persons with disabilities were presented to invigorate employment and economic activity.
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ACTIVITY REPORT
  • Takuo SUGINAKA, Yoshitaka SUZUKI, Tsuneo HARASHIMA
    2022 Volume 22 Pages 126-132
    Published: April 30, 2022
    Released on J-STAGE: April 30, 2022
    JOURNAL OPEN ACCESS
    This study aimed to assess different methods for managing group work scenarios in actual seminar classes at higher education institutions, utilizing action research techniques and accounting for hearing-impaired students, so that all types of students may progress smoothly. In reviewing participants’ reflections, we found that the speed of group work tasks fell as a result of research team intervention, causing hearing-impaired students to feel more at ease psychologically and other participants to feel constrained by the discussion restrictions and rules. However, participants’ burdens gradually became more intertwined, with other participants becoming more accustomed to the burdens of hearing–impaired students, suggesting that we were moving towards a universal environment.
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