A series of thermodynamic studies on the mechanism of bacterial hemagglutination and on the inhibition of this reaction by mannose were carried out by the use of twin conduction microcalorimeter. Interaction between erythrocytes and aldoses used in the present study yielded practically no significant Q value. On the contrary, of the five aldoses tested, four aldoses (D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose and D xylose), the fifth being L-arabinose, were observed to yield exothermic heat by interaction with all strains of Shigella ftexneri, irrespective of the presence or absence of absence of fitnbriation. Of particular note, however, is that D-mannose reacted with the fimbriate strains, yielding a significant Q value qualitatively peculiar and characteristic of an exothermic interaction. Monosaccharide absorption studies on the cells of Sh. flexneri or on the red blood cells revealed that D-man nose was intensely absorbed by only the fimbriate strains of Sh. flexneri. The Q value yielded by the interaction between the non-fimbriate strain and mannose is of the exothermic type, whereas that observed by that between the fimbriate strain and mannose is conversely of the endothermic type. And the reaction of D-mannose with the purified fimbriae is characteristically of the endothermic type, and such was also true in the reaction system with the purified fimbriae and the erythrocytes. The fimbriate strains of Sh. flexneri reacted with mannan, polymer of mannose, to exhibit agglutination of the bacterial cells (Shigella-Mannan agglutination), yielding a Q value of the endothermic type, and this type of agglutination was intensely inhibited by D-mannose. It has been suggested from the results that the mannose molecule would be situated as the terminal sugar at the binding sites or receptor on the surface of the erythrocytes, and the fimbriac of the man nose sensitive type interact with this receptor.
The vascular hunting reaction was determined on four groups; swimmers, students, ice-chamber workc1s, and cool-room workers. Determination of the vascular hunting reaction is performed as follows: The left middle finger is immersed up to its base in a water bath of O℃. Room temperature is kept at 22~24 ℃. Then three characteristics of the temperature change of the linger due to immersion in ice water are adopted as parameters of the reaction, and a ”resistance index„ is drawn from the values of each characteristic. ”Resistance index„ of ice-chamber workers was the largest, swimmers the second, normal students the third, and that of cool-room workers was the lowest. In the second place, effects of room temperature and clothing on the vascular hunting reaction to cold were tested under controlled conditions, and variations due to season and sex were compared according to the vascular reaction of the finger to cold. The higher the room temperature and the thicker the clothes, the higher were the characteristics of the skin temperature curve, but the ”resistance index„ became almost the same value in each state by using a calibration according to the finger temperature before its immersion. There was no sex difference in the vascular hunting reaction. ”Resistance index„ in winter was less than that in summer.
Serological reactions between anti-human placental tissue antiserum and 584 human sera from patients of various diseases and conditions have been tested using the micro-Ouchterlony method. Relatively high incidence of positive reaction was noted with cases of malignant tumours (57.5%), leukaemia (63.6%), pregnancy (77.8%), myocardial infarction (41.2%), and hepato-biliary diseases (43.3%). One of the most important and interesting characters of this test is the wide variety of neoplasms which showed a positive reaction. The active factor was located at β-area by immunoelectrophoresis, except in the case of pregnancy. Antigen analysis using a double diffusion method on agar plate showed quite a simila1ity between umbilical cord and placental tissue extracts, the active components of which were tentatively named umbilico-placental antigens.
Urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline was measured in human subjects in various situations. It was found that the catecholamine excretion increased in some of these situations. The increase of adrenaline exc1etion was about 400% during giving birth, 130% in a mental work 80% in tilting of posture, and 30% in monotonous light work, and the increase of noradrenaline excretion was about 130% in tilting of posture, 60% in heavy physical work, and 20% on the first day of mental work, compared to each control value. From these findings, it was concluded that adrenaline excretion is elevated in mental or emotional strains and that the quantity of increased adrenaline might be roughly proportional to the degree of the strain. Noradrenaline excretion was also thought to have a connection with emotion though to a less extent than adrenaline excretion. It was tentatively considered that passive emotion or mental strains induce the increase of adrenaline excretion and active emotion or physical strains are accompanied by the increase of noradrenaline output.
The effect of thallium acetate on the growth of Proteus mirabilis (strain 9) and its L-phase variant (strain L9) was investigated. In the fluid medium, thallium acetate at a concentration of 1:4000 did not affect the maximum growth titre and the growth rate of these organisms. At a concentration of 1:2000, their maximum growth titre was reduced by 1 in 10 in comparison with that at a concentration of 1:4000, and the growth rate of strain 9 was delayed considerably although that of strain L9 was not affected. On the agar medium, strain L9 was inhibited slightly at 1:4000 concentration of thallium acetate while strain 9 was not, but it was inhibited at a concentration of l:2000. Production of exceedingly small colonies of strain 9 and inhibition of swarming were observed on an agar culture containing thallium acetate but the size of the colonies became larger gradually with the length of the incubation period. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it may be concluded that in general the attitude of Proteus mirabilis and its L phase variant toward thallium acetate is almost similar.
An attempt was made to investigate the effect of mechanical force on the collagenolytic activity of the periodontal membrane of rabbits during experimental tooth movement, by means of sterile incubation of the excised tissues on the reconstituted collagen gel plate in vitro. An orthodontic elastic band was applied between lower incisor and first molar so as to exert about 100 g reciprocal force upon the intermediate tissues for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 21 day periods respectively. It was demonstrated that the periodontal membrane of first molar subjected to compressive force had the ability of collagenolysis, and that the appearance of collagenolytic activity was dependent upon the duration of force application. The results suggest that the incidence of collagenolytic activity may be closely related to the deposition of fresh granulation tissue accompanied by vascularity and osteoclasts.
This investigation was undertaken for the purpose of understanding the function al behavior of unilateral extension saddle removable partial dentures and their optimal design, based on clinical experiments. Mainly, the relation between the pattern of the occlusal table and the transmitting lateral force to the abutment tooth was examined. A specially simulated model fo1 the unilateral mandibular extension saddle denture was devised for this purpose. Devices for measuring the tooth mobility and force applicator, and their recording system were used. Conclusions drawn from this investigation were as follows: (1) An optimal load distribution on the residual ridge under denture saddle was observed when a vertical force was applied on the crest spots of the occlusal table. (2) Reduction of the bucco-lingual width of the occlusal table, particularly in distal area, rationally reduced the lateral transmitting force against the abutment tooth. (3) A lateral force against distal extension saddle had a great effect on the abutment tooth, chiefly on the abutment of indirect retainer. (4) The amount of vertical excursion of distal extension saddle was markedly concerned with the location of loading area when the vertical force was applied on the occlusal table of the denture saddle.