A series of human experiments on walking uphill under radiant heat in addition to hot environment were carried out and the safety conditions for walking uphill from the standpoint of physiological response were determined. Experiments were carried out on three healthy adult males aged 21 years, walking uphill on a motor-driven treadmill with the aim of walking at a speed of 45 m/min, 55 m/min and 65 m/min and with a slope gradient of 0°, 5° and 10°. The load weight used was 30, 40 and 50 percent of the body weight for each combination of speed, gradient and load weight. The subjects were exposed to a radiant heat of 1.3 cal/㎠.min, using 12 exsiccating infrared lamps, with a room temperature of 33℃, a relative humidity of 60% and an airflow of 0.7 m/sec. The following results were obtained by estimating the physiological response (heart rate, respiration rate, rectal temperature and RMR (relative metabolic rate)) to different degrees of walking conditions during the 10-minute exercise: 1) The work intensity (RMR) of uphill walking with a certain load weight under hot environment can be changed by varying the walking speed and the load weight according to the slope gradient. 2) As there exists a gap between RMR 5 and 6 in parallel with the other physiological responses, it is preferable to keep the walking condition under RMR 6, as viewed from the change of the other walking conditions. 3) The heart rate as an indicator of the work load must be kept below 130 beats/min for a safe uphill walking of under RMR 6.
Radioisotope scanning with 99mTc-pertechnetate or 67Ga-citrate for the spinal cord tumors was reported. Six patients with spinal cord tumors including 2 ependymomas, 1 neurinoma, 1 metastatic medulloblastoma, 1 metastatic astrocytoma, and 1 metastatic pinealoma as well as 6 patients with non-neoplastic lesions were examined with this method. Two out of 6 cases with tumors showed positive scans and two equivocal scans. This new method is different from myeloscintigraphy and radioisotope angiography as already reported. It directly demonstrates tumor itself like brain scanning and is very useful as nontraumatic method for screening spinal cord lesions, especially in poor risk patient. The usefulness and limitation of this method are discussed.
It is said that the Paneth cells are found in the large intestine in a pathological state such as ulcerative colitis or adenoma. We examined the Paneth cells in the adenomas of familial poly posis coli. Nine cases including one case of Gardner’s syndrome comprised the material for the examination of the Paneth cells because the caecum was available for the examination. The remaining one case had no Paneth cells. In two cases, the Paneth cells were found among the adenomas in the areas beyond the caecum and the proximal part of the colon ascendens. In one remarkable case, the Paneth cells were found in 43% of the adenomas in the caecum. Seven cases were carcinomas but no Paneth cells were found in or near the carcinoma. In the control cases, which were taken from the resected colon with a disease other than familial polyposis coli, the Paneth cells were found confined to the caecum. We concluded that the distribution of the Paneth cell bearing adenomas reflects the distribution of the Paneth cells in the normal mucosa of the large intestine and that the Paneth cells in the adenoma may have differentiated in the adenoma.
Previously published data on the mucosal cleavage lines were compared with data on the formation of scar tissue after palatoplasty and it was found that, in the palate and surrounding tissues, scar formation is light when incisions are parallel to the long axis of the cleavage lines but severe when incisions are made at right angles to the cleavage lines. A few cases were also found where jaw movement was severely restricted because of the formation of hypertrophic scar between the upper and lower alveolar ridges. It is therefore desirable that surgical incisions in the pal ate and surrounding tissues be made parallel to the long axis of the mucosal cleavage lines.
In order to correct the condition of restricted jaw movement due to hypertrophic scar tissue after palatoplasty, the scar is first cut laterally. After cutting away the scar tissue from under the mucosa and suturing the incision longitudinally, a drastic improvement in free jaw movement is obtained.
To define the anatomical background of the neuromuscular mechanism involved in the movement of the snout of the moles (Talpidae) the present histological study was carried out on the snout muscles of this family including the Japanese shrew-mole (Urotrichus talpoides), Japanese lesser shrew-mole (Dymecodon pilirostris) and Temminck’s mole (Mogera wogura). The snout musculature consists of five muscles: A) Zygomaticus major, B) Levator labii superioris, C) Levator alae nasi superioris, D) Levator alae nasi inferioris and E) Zygomaticus minor, the former two of which are the possessor of the muscle spindles and the latter three of which are not so, with the exception of the Zygomaticus minor having one spindle in the Japanese shrew-mole. Seventy-three spindles were counted on one side of the snout musculature in the Dymecodon pilirostris (12g in weight), 120 spindles in the Urotrichus talpoides (19g in weight) and the Mogera wogura (100g in weight). The snout musculature was 0.015g, 0.02g and 0.1g in weight, respectively. The number of spindles per milligram weight of the muscle was 4.9 in the Dymecodon, 6 in the Urotrichus and 1.2 in the Mogera. The density of the spindle distribution was much higher in the former two than in the latter one. Since the Dymecodon and Urotrichus actually search for food by moving their long snout vigorously over the ground and the Mogera, being a subterranean, searches for food by moving his snout not so vigorously under the ground, the pattern of the snout movement seems to be coincident with the morphological differentiation of the snout musculature and the density of the muscle spindle distribution in the moles (Talpidae).
Granulation tissue which is responsible for root resorption of deciduous tooth lies between root of the deciduous tooth and its permanent tooth germ. This tissue is called “root resorbing tissue”. Its bone-resorbing activity was investigated in vitro. Bovine root-resorbing tissue was cultured in close contact with 45Ca-labeled dead calvaria of rats. Bone-resorbing activity was determined by measuring 45Ca released from labeled calvaria during culture. It was found that only the root-resorbing tissue which was rich in odontoclasts and had a good blood supply in its surface layer had bone-resorbing ability, and that bone resorption occurred only when it was placed in close contact with calvarium. The root resorbing tissue which was poor in odontoclasts and blood vessels failed to stimulate bone resorption. Bone resorption by the root-resorbing tissue was enhanced markedly by 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 or heparin, but not by larger amounts of parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and dihydrotachysterol when added to the culture.