Nicotine has roles in the addiction to smoking, replacement therapy for smoking cessation, as a potential medication for several diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and ulcerative colitis. The absorbed nicotine is rapidly and extensively metabolized and eliminated to urine. A major pathway of nicotine metabolism is C-oxidation to cotinine, which is catalyzed by CYP2A6 in human livers. Cotinine is subsequently metabolized to trans-3′-hydroxycotinine by CYP2A6. Nicotine and cotinine are glucuronidated to N-glucuronides mainly by UGT1A4 and partly by UGT1A9. Trans-3′-hydroxycotinine is glucuronidated to O-glucuronide mainly by UGT2B7 and partly by UGT1A9. Approximately 90% of the total nicotine uptake is eliminated as these metabolites and nicotine itself. The nicotine metabolism is an important determinant of the clearance of nicotine. Recently, advances in the understanding of the interindividual variability in nicotine metabolism have been made. There are substantial data suggesting that the large interindividual differences in cotinine formation are associated with genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2A6 gene. Interethnic differences have also been observed in the cotinine formation and the allele frequencies of the CYP2A6 alleles. Since the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2A6 gene have a major impact on nicotine clearance, its relationships with smoking behavior or the risk of lung cancer have been suggested. The metabolic pathways of the glucuronidation of nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3′-hydroxycotinine in humans would be one of the causal factors for the interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism. This review mainly summarizes recent results from our studies.
There have been no reports of the quantitative prediction of induction for drug-metabolizing enzymes in humans. We have tried to predict such enzyme induction in humans from in vitro data obtained using human hepatocytes. The in vitro and in vivo data on enzyme induction by inducers, such as rifampicin, phenobarbital and omeprazole, were collected from the published literature. The degree of enzyme induction in humans was compared with that predicted from in vitro data on human hepatocytes. Using the in vivo data, we calculated the hepatic intrinsic clearance of typical CYP substrates, such as midazolam and caffeine, before and after inducer treatment and estimated the induction ratios of hepatic intrinsic clearance following treatment. In the in vitro studies, the amount of mRNA or enzyme and enzyme activity in human hepatocytes, with or without an inducer, were compared and the induction ratios were estimated. The unbound mean concentration was taken as an index of drug exposure and the induction ratios in the in vivo and in vitro studies were compared. The unbound mean concentrations of inducers used in the in vitro studies were higher than those in the in vivo studies. The maximum induction ratios by inducers in the in vitro studies were higher than those in the in vivo studies. The induction ratio for rifampicin, omeprazole, troglitazone, dexamethasone and phenobarbital increased as the unbound mean concentration increased to reach a constant value. The induction of CYP3A and 1A was analyzed by the Emax model. The maximum induction ratio (Emax) and the concentration at half maximum induction (EC50) for rifampicin, omeprazole, troglitazone, dexamethasone and phenobarbital were 12.3, 0.847 μmol/L, 2.36, 0.225 μmol/L, 6.86, 0.002 μmol/L, 8.30, 9.32 μmol/L, and 7.62, 58.4 μmol/L, respectively. The Emax and EC50 of omeprazole for CYP1A were 12.02 and 0.075 μmol/L, respectively. The predicted induction ratio of all those inducers, except for omeprazole, based on the Emax and EC50 values obtained from the in vitro data were similar to the observed values. On the whole, a good correlation between the observed and predicted induction ratio of omeprazole was observed (r=0.768, p<0.05), although the predicted induction ratio was higher than the observed value. In conclusion, the present study suggests that it is possible to predict quantitatively the CYP3A enzyme induction from hepatocyte data.
We examined the design of the versatile novel self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) type O/W microemulsion formulation which enhances the oral bioavailability by raising the solubility of poorly water soluble compounds. Namely, seven kinds of poorly water soluble compounds such as disopyramide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, tolbutamide, and other new compounds, as the model compounds were used to compare the plasma concentration profile of the compound following single oral administration of each compound to rats and beagle dogs as a solution, an oily solution, a suspension (or a powder), an O/W microemulsion, and a SEDDS type O/W microemulsion. And the enhancing effect of the SEDDS type O/W microemulsion on the gastrointestinal absorption of these compounds was evaluated. In the components of the SEDDS type O/W microemulsion, medium chain fatty acid triglyceride (MCT), diglyceryl monooleate (DGMO-C), polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 (HCO-40), and ethanol were used as an oil, a lipophilic surfactant, a hydrophilic surfactant, and a solubilizer, at the mixture ratio of 25/5/45/25 (w/w%), respectively. Thereby, to six kinds of the model compounds except disopyramide, the solubility was from 340 to 98,000 times that in water, and the AUCs in plasma concentration of the compound were equivalent to that of solution or O/W microemulsion administration, or was increased by 1.5 to 78 times that of suspension administration. Accordingly, this novel SEDDS type O/W microemulsion is the versatile, useful formulation which enhances the oral bioavailability by raising the solubility of poorly water soluble compounds.
The stabilization effect of the novel self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) type O/W microemulsion on the gastrointestinal absorption of a poorly water soluble new compound, ER-1258 was examined by bile-fistula model rats. In the components of this formulation, medium chain fatty acid triglyceride (MCT), diglyceryl monooleate (DGMO-C), polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 40 (HCO-40) and ethanol were used as an oil, a lipophilic surfactant, a hydrophilic surfactant and a solubilizer at the mixture ratio of 25/5/45/25 w/w%, respectively. The ratios of AUC in the non-treated rats to that in the bile-fistula rats were 5.1, 12.1 and 3.0 for the suspension, the oily solution and the SEDDS type O/W microemulsion, respectively. The risk from which the difference between individuals of the compound absorption amounts resulting from the flow of the bile secretion serves as the maximum was high in order of oily solution>suspension>SEDDS type O/W microemulsion. Therefore, it was verified that the SEDDS type O/W microemulsion was able to reduce this risk, compared with the other formulations. When short chain fatty acid triglyceride (Triacetin) was used as an oil, the similar effect was demonstrated in the formulation composed of sorbitan sesquioleate (SO-15) as a lipophilic surfactant and polyoxyethylene hydrogenated castor oil 60 (HCO-60) or polyoxyethylene 20 sorbitan monooleate (TO-10M) as a hydrophilic surfactant.
To evaluate an in vitro model suitable for investigating intestinal first-pass drug metabolism, CYP3A4 and MDR1 mRNA induction by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) was examined in two human intestinal cell lines, Caco-2 and LS180, under various culture conditions. CYP3A4 mRNA expression was induced by 100 nM VD3 at levels between 234-549 times above normal in Caco-2 cells for 2 weeks and by 74-200 times above normal in LS180 cells for 2 days. The CYP3A4 induction effect of 250 nM VD3 was similar to or slightly higher than that of 100 nM VD3 in both Caco-2 and LS180 cells. Also, CYP3A4 was induced in Caco-2 and LS180 cells when they were cultured on a polystyrene plate slightly less than when they were cultured on a porous membrane. The increase in fetal bovine serum (FBS) content in the culture medium resulted in little or only slight increase of CYP3A4 induction in both Caco-2 and LS180 cells. MDR1 mRNA expression was marginally increased by VD3 in LS180 cells, but not in Caco-2 cells, and neither increased FBS content nor use of a porous membrane significantly affected MDR1 induction in LS180 cells. The transepithelial electrical resistance of LS180 cells was almost zero, whereas that of Caco-2 cells was high and was marginally decreased by VD3. These findings indicate that Caco-2 cells cultured on a porous membrane with 100 nM VD3 for 2 weeks may be used as a model to investigate the intestinal absorption and first-pass metabolism of drugs, while LS180 cells may be utilized to elucidate the mechanisms which regulate intestinal CYP3A4 mRNA expression.
We recently found that octaarginine modified liposomes (R8-Lip) can be efficiently internalized by cultured cells. The purpose of the present study was to quantitatively determine the effect of R8-density on the tissue distribution of R8-Lip in mice, using their clearance as an index. R8 was introduced in the form of stearylated R8 (STR-R8). The liposomes were composed of cholesterol and egg phosphatidylcholine and were labeled with [3H]cholesteryl hexadecyl ether. Various densities of R8 (3%, 10% and 30%) containing liposomes were prepared with a diameter of approximately 70-80 nm. The tissue distribution of R8-Lip was determined after their i.v. administration into mice and the effect of R8-density on tissue distribution was compared with uptake clearance, the calculated tissue distribution divided by the area under the blood concentration-time course. As results, R8-Lip were more rapidly eliminated from circulating blood and distributed to many tissues, especially liver depending on the R8-density. However, the tissue uptake clearance represented similar value to that of positively charge liposomes. Based on these results, we conclude that the R8-dependent increase in R8-Lip in various tissues tested indicates that positive charge, but not PTD function derived from R8 predominantly responsible for the enhancement of tissue distribution. Therefore, it is suggested that topology control of R8 is important to exhibit the PTD function.
Androgens (androsterone, dihydrotestosterone and testosterone) and estrogens (estradiol, estriol and estrone) were incubated with liver microsomes from rats, dogs, monkeys and humans in the presence of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA), and the glucuronides produced were structurally characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After 2-h incubation with dog liver microsomes, all substrates tested were converted (approximately 2-10%) to structurally novel diglucuronides, where two glucuronosyl groups are bound to a single hydroxyl group in tandem. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy unambiguously elucidated the chemical structures of the 3-O-diglucuronide of estrone and the 17-O-diglucuronide of testosterone isolated from the incubation mixture. Monkey and human liver microsomes were also found to have the activity to form this type of diglucuronide, albeit more slowly than the dog liver microsomes, but rat liver microsomes produced no detectable diglucuronides. The rate of formation of estrone 3-O-diglucuronide from the corresponding monoglucuronide in dog liver microsomes followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics at substrate concentrations from 50 to 1000 μM, with a Km value of 127.1 μM and a Vmax value of 47.0 pmol/min/mg protein.
We analyzed all the exons and exon-intron junctions of the CYP2D6 gene from 286 Japanese individuals. We detected two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 2556C>T in exon 5 (Thr261Ile) and 3835A>C in exon 8 (Lys404Gln). Both these SNPs showed a frequency of 0.002.
Forty-eight single nucleotide variations, including 27 novel ones, were found in the 5′- regulatory region, all of the exons and their surrounding introns of CYP2C19 in 253 Japanese subjects (134 diabetic patients and 119 healthy volunteers). Identified novel variations were as follows: -2772G>A, 2767_-2760delGGTGAACA, -2720T>C, -2547delG, -2545G>T, -2545_-2544 delGC, and -2040C>T in the enhancer region; -778C>T, -777G>A, -529G>C, -189C>A, and -185A>G in the promoter region; 151A>G (S51G), 481G>C (A161P), 986G>A (R329H), 1078G>A (D360N), and 1119C>T (D373D) in the exons, and IVS1+128T>A, IVS3+163G>A, IVS4+271A>G, IVS5-49A>G, IVS6-210C>T, IVS6-196T>A, IVS6-32T>A, IVS7+84G>A, IVS7-174C>T, and IVS8+64C>T in the introns. Since we found no significant differences in the variation frequencies between healthy volunteers and diabetic patients, the data for all subjects were treated as one group in further analysis. The allele frequencies were 0.265 for IVS6-196T>A, 0.045 for -2772G>A and -2720T>C, 0.024 for -2040C>T, 0.014 for IVS7-174C>T, 0.010 for -529G>C, 0.006 for IVS1+128T>A and 481G>C (A161P), 0.004 for -2767_-2760delGGTGAACA and IVS6-210C>T, and 0.002 for the other 17 variations. In addition, the two known nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, 681G>A (splicing defect, *2 allele) and 636G>A (W212X; *3 allele) were detected at 0.267 and 0.128 frequencies, respectively. No variation was detected in the known binding sites for constitutive androstane receptor and glucocorticoid receptor. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed several close linkages of variations throughout the gene. By using the variations, thirty-one haplotypes of CYP2C19 and their frequencies were estimated. Our results would provide fundamental and useful information for genotyping CYP2C19 in the Japanese and probably other Asian populations.
In the originally published version of the article entitled “Determination of a Novel Haplotype of B2-Adrenergic Receptor in the Japanese Population by the Combination of the Electronic Microchip Assay Using the NanoChip System with Allele-specific PCR”, published by Yoshida N, Sugiyama M, Tanoue A, Hirasawa A, Saito H, and Tsujimoto G in Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 17(6): 532-539 (2002), a portion of the Discussion section was virtually identical to and referenced from the original article published by Mathew D. Littlejohn, D. Robin Taylor, Allison L. Miller, and Martin A. Kennedy, in Human mutation20(6); 479, 2002. We apologize for our unintentional failure to cite the source article by Littlejohn MD, and would like to acknowledge their study by submitting the following correction.
Right:32) Littlejohn, M. D., Taylor, D. R., Miller, A. L., Kennedy, M. A.: Determination of B2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) haplotypes by a multiplexed polymerase chain reaction assay. Hum. Mutat.20(6): 479-487 (2002).