Glycosylation has recently become one of the most significant subjects in tumor biology, and cell surface glycosylation is closely associated with various biological phenomena in tumor cells. However, the biological significance of cell surface glycosylation and sialic acid linked to glycans in human malignant lymphoma is not well elucidated. We have determined that 1) sialylation or loss of N-glycosylation is closely associated with a worse prognosis in human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 2) glycosylation or sialic acid on the surface of lymphoma cells plays significant roles in cell adhesion or invasion to the extracellular matrix, cell growth, apoptosis and cell death. In the present review, the biological functions of glycosylation or sialic acid in human malignant lymphoma are discussed.
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic disorder characterized by leukocytoclastic vasculitis involving the capillaries and the deposition of IgA immune complexes. Renal involvement is the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in children with HSP. Thus, it is important to clarify the onset mechanism as well as the prognostic factors of Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) and to identify the most appropriate treatment. We herein review the pathogenesis, the prognostic factors and treatment of HSPN. As to the pathogenesis, several studies suggest that galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) is recognized by anti-glycan antibodies, leading to the formation of circulating immune complexes and their mesangial deposition, thereby inducing renal injury. With regard to the prognostic factors, a number of factors have been suggested including nephrotic syndrome, decreased factor XIII activity, hypertension, severe renal injury, high renal accumulation of activated macrophage, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and high serum myeloid-related protein levels. For the treatment of severe HSPN, aggressive therapies including multiple drug combination therapy and plasmapheresis have been shown to be effective in ameliorating proteinuria and histological severity. Nevertheless, detailed investigation into the pathogenesis of HSPN and double-blind randomized control studies on children with HSPN are still necessary.
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains one of the most serious heart diseases and elucidation of its pathogenesis and advances in treatment strategies have been desired. In 2009, to understand the status of AMI in Fukushima Prefecture for improving treatment outcomes, a new AMI registration survey system was conducted throughout the prefecture. A total of 1,556 cases were registered in the initial 2 years from 2009 to 2010. The hospital-based overall incidence of AMI in Fukushima Prefecture was 37.9 people per population of 100,000 per year. Mortality from AMI within 30 days of onset was 10.2%. We report herein the actual situation of AMI onset and treatment in Fukushima Prefecture based on the initial results of the survey.
We investigated the inhibitory effect of extracts of blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) from New Zealand and Poland on 4 strains of influenza virus (IFV) by the inhibition of virus adsorption; pandemic flu from 2009-2010 (IFV-AH1pdm), Hong Kong flu (IFV-AH3), oseltamivir phosphate-resistant Russian flu (IFV-AH1tamr) and influenza virus type B (IFV-B). The inhibitory effect of the extracts of blackcurrant or blueberry on the infectivity of the virion were evaluated by the inhibition of virus adsorption on the cell surface (adsorption-inhibitory assay). Three percent solutions of the blackcurrant extracts from New Zealand and Poland were enough to disinfect more than half of IFV-AH1pdm and IFV-B, and 10% solutions from both regions disinfected all IFV strains completely. Our previous study showed that the antiviral effect of the blackcurrant differed according to viral species. Here we showed that although the antiviral effect of Blackcurrant was slightly different within viral strains from one species, the extract of Blackcurrant could disinfect all of 4 IFV strains we examined. The extracts of blackcurrant showed definite potential for use as a disinfectant and antiseptic agent to prevent IFV infection.
After the high magnitude earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in Japan on March 11, 2011, the residents of Fukushima Prefecture suffered not only from tremendous physical injury caused by the earthquake and tsunami but also from the effects of radiation contamination after a hydrogen explosion at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant on March 12, 2011. The complex Fukushima disaster is characterized by additional stress due to the fear of continued exposure to invisible radiation. We investigated whether there were any changes in the clinical mental state of patients in the inpatient ward of Fukushima Medical University Hospital, Japan, 7 days after the earthquake. There was no obvious change in the condition of two-thirds of the patients. Whereas one-third of patients had any change in their condition, several cases showed dramatic symptomatic improvement after the earthquake. Anxiety levels in the patients who originally showed coexisting anxiety disorders became exaggerated. The depressive state was improved after the earthquake in one patient with depression. One patient with restrictive-type anorexia nervosa resumed food consumption. These findings suggest that caregivers should be attentive to any symptomatic changes among patients with psychiatric disorders after sudden disasters.
We previously reported a case of pulmonary hypertension, where the symptoms were improved by oral L-arginine (arginine) administration. Arginine may increase nitric oxide (NO) production in the pulmonary artery. Exhaled NO may reflect pulmonary artery NO production. It has been demonstrated that exhaled NO concentration is higher in patients with allergic diseases, but whether oral arginine administration alters exhaled NO is unknown. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether oral arginine administration increases exhaled NO among healthy volunteers with and without a history of allergy. Eleven subjects were given a single oral dose (200 mg/kg) of arginine, and their plasma arginine concentrations and exhaled NO were measured up to 150 minutes. Baseline values of exhaled NO concentration were significantly higher in those with a history of allergy (56.4±20.3 ppb, n=5, P< 0.05) than those without (16.8±4.0 ppb, n=6). Oral arginine increased exhaled NO, which peaked at 60 minutes after the administration in those with a history of allergy (85.2±44.8 ppb, n=5). However, the increase in exhaled NO was not significant compared to the baseline values. In contrast, plasma arginine concentration was increased significantly by arginine administration (P< 0.01), regardless of an allergy history. These results suggested that the difference in exhaled NO concentration was not due to a difference in arginine absorption. Serum IgE level was significantly higher in the group with a history of allergy. Eosinophils and white blood cells were within normal range in all subjects. We conclude that oral arginine administration does not significantly increase exhaled NO, regardless of allergy history. However, as arginine administration has been reported to be effective in patients with pulmonary hypertension, it will be necessary to test exhaled NO in subjects with pulmonary hypertension in the future.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare complication of connective tissue diseases. Here, we describe 2 patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) who had pericardial effusion and TTP. They had moderately low to normal ADAMTS13 activity and no ADAMTS13 neutralizing antibodies. Both patients responded poorly to plasma exchange. One patient died due to multiple organ failure and the other due to infection. Although rare, TTP is an important complication that leads to a poor prognosis in MCTD patients.
A 75-year-old woman presented with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis with positive results for anti-myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA). Corticosteroid therapy was successfully introduced. However, 7 months later, magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked swelling in the falx cerebri and high density regions were apparent on gallium scintigraphy, leading to diagnosis of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP). Symptoms improved with intensified corticosteroid therapy, but radiological examination 9 months later revealed right nasal sinus inflammation accompanied by osteolytic change. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) was finally diagnosed. HCP is an important complication in MPO-ANCA-related vasculitis, and needs to be considered during the clinical course.
A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of anorexia and vomiting. Hematology revealed elevated levels of hepatobiliary enzymes and positive results for antinuclear antibody (ANA) and antimitochondrial (AMA) M2 antibody. Immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM levels were extremely elevated, 3,379 mg/dl and 4,250 mg/dl, respectively. A diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis (PBC-AIH) overlap syndrome was made. However, IgM levels as high as the level of 4,250 mg/dl in this case has not been reported previously. This case may be of value in studying elevated IgM levels with PBC-AIH overlap syndrome and relationships to the mechanism of onset.