The gut microbiota plays a key role in the development of chronic inflammatory liver disease. The gut-liver axis involves inflammatory cells, cytokines, and other molecules that cause liver deterioration. Dysbiosis is important in understanding several liver diseases, especially in relation to the development of autoimmune liver disease. The aim of this review is to provide a current overview of alterations in the gut and oral microbiota associated with autoimmune liver diseases.
Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) is among the most common congenital diseases in male children. Although many factors have been linked to the incidence of cryptorchidism, and testicular androgen plays a key role in its pathogenesis, the cause remains unknown in most cases. Recently, a Japanese group published a speculative paper entitled, “Nationwide increase in cryptorchidism after the Fukushima nuclear accident.” Although the authors implicated radionuclides emitted from the Fukushima accident as contributing to an increased incidence of cryptorchidism, they failed to establish biological plausibility for their hypothesis, and glossed over an abundance of evidence and expert opinion to the contrary. We assessed the adequacy of their study in terms of design setting, data analysis, and its conclusion from various perspectives. Numerous factors must be considered, including genetic, environmental, maternal/fetal, and social factors associated with the reporting of cryptorchidism. Other investigators have established that the doses of external and internal radiation exposure in both Fukushima prefecture and the whole of Japan after the accident are too low to affect testicular descent during fetal periods;thus, a putative association can be theoretically and empirically rejected. Alternative explanations exist for the reported estimates of increased cryptorchidism surgeries in the years following Japan’s 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis. Data from independent sources cast doubt on the extent to which cryptorchidism increased, if at all. In any case, evidence that radionuclides from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant could cause cryptorchidism is lacking.
Stress is an inevitable part of nursing life. Nurses need to respond to their stressful environment contents to reduce negative consequences. We examined the role of dimensions of emotional intelligence in predicting coping reactions to stress in 201 college nursing practitioners in this cross-sectional study between November 2017 and January 2018. The nurses appraised their own emotions, but they were not sure that appraised others’ emotions, regulated their and others’ emotions. They could cope with new ideas and faced obstacles. Most of the nurses were moderately stressed. Those nurses were not able to regulate their own emotions were determined to have a higher level of perceived stress. Active coping, positive reframing and acceptance were the most prevalent coping mechanisms. The investigation showed that others’ emotion appraisal was a predictor for self-blame reaction, and emotion utilization was the predictor for positive reframing and self-blame.
An advanced glycation end products (AGE)/a receptor for AGE (RAGE) axis plays a central role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular remodeling. This study was conducted to clarify the role of RAGE in nondiabetic atherosclerosis. We used the aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits prone to myocardial infarction (WHHLMI) at 1 to 14 months. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the significant expression of RAGE as early as at 1 month with the stronger expression at 3 and 7 months, which was remarkably diminished at 14 months. RAGE expression was concordant with AGE accumulation. The major original sources of RAGE expression were macrophages and smooth muscle cells in addition to endothelial cells, and RAGE expression was distributed in the areas of phospholipid products, a component of oxidized LDL and nitrotyrosine. The concentrations of serum AGE did not alter significantly with aging. These findings suggested the expression of RAGE was induced by hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress independent of diabetes in WHHLMI rabbits. Additionally, our in vitro study showed that silencing of RAGE tended to attenuate oxidized-LDL-triggered PAI-1 expression in human cultured macrophages, as well as oxidized-LDL-induced tissue factor expression in peritoneal macrophages, suggesting a possible role of RAGE in prothrombogenic molecular regulation. In conclusion, the present study provides in vivo evidence that RAGE plays an integral role in the initiation and progression of nondiabetic atherosclerosis, suggesting that RAGE may be a novel target for treating not only diabetic but also nondiabetic vascular complications.
The Great East Japan Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, and its subsequent Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, prompted implementation of the Thyroid Ultrasound Examination (TUE) program as a part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. The purpose of this program is to support residents of Fukushima Prefecture, and to analyze the health effects of the released radionuclides. Regardless of relatively high participation rates and a well-planned diagnostic flow, it is conceivable that not all thyroid cancer cases can be detected by the TUE program. The aims of the present study were to identify and characterize these “outside” cases, targeting patients at Fukushima Medical University (FMU) Hospital. As of June 30, 2017, we have successfully identified 11 outside cases. These corresponded to 5.7% of the 194 subjects who were identified as having thyroid cancer or suspected thyroid cancer in the TUE program. Although the outside subjects of other institutes were not investigated, the present study may have identified the majority of outside subjects in Japan, considering that FMU Hospital treats a large number of thyroid cancer subjects. Furthermore, the characteristics of the 11 subjects were not different from those of the subjects identified in the TUE program. These findings confirm that the TUE program was able to identify subjects of thyroid cancer adequately and sufficiently.
Objective: Preoperative diagnosis and successful management of acute torsion of a subserosal fibroid by using appropriate imaging modalities and single-port laparoscopic surgery.
Case report: A 44-year-old nulliparous woman presented with lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with contrast enhancement revealed a tumor in the pouch of Douglas with a low contrast at the center and thin-rim enhancement. Torsion of a uterine subserosal fibroid was diagnosed preoperatively. Laparoscopic single-port surgery by pneumoperitoneum was performed. Torsion of the pedicle attached to the uterine wall was excised by bipolar coagulation and cut with scissors. The extirpated fibroid was extracted from the umbilical wound. The pneumoperitoneum single-port laparoscopic surgery was completed as a gynecologic emergency operation.
Conclusion: Torsional uterine fibroids are difficult to diagnose preoperatively as symptoms are nonspecific and need emergent surgical management as an acute abdomen. Preoperative diagnosis using appropriate imaging modalities is important to perform single-port laparoscopic surgery.
Objective: Ovarian steroid cell tumor (SCT) is a rare tumor with steroid-producing ability. We report a 22-year-old woman with secondary amenorrhea and hirsutism caused by an ovarian SCT-not otherwise specified (NOS), who underwent successfully laparoscopic resection of the tumor.
Case report:A 22-year-old null gravida woman presented to a hospital, having amenorrhea for 18 months and increasing facial hair. Physical examination revealed obesity (body mass index, 37.3 kg/m2) with evident facial and trunk hair. Total and free serum testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels were found to be elevated. Levels of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone, gonadotropins, cortisol, aldosterone, and ovarian steroids were observed to be within reference intervals. Although polycystic ovaries were not found, a hyperechogenic solid tumor (3 cm) was detected on transvaginal ultrasonography. Laparoscopic resection of the tumor was performed. One month post-surgery, total and free testosterone levels were observed to have decreased, and menstruation resumed two months thereafter. The patient was histologically diagnosed with ovarian SCT-NOS. Expression of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes, which are related to hyperandrogenism, was observed. No disease recurrence has been reported for more than 5 years post-surgery.
We report a patient with dermatomyositis (DM) complicated with progressive pleural effusion and ascites. A 40-year-old woman was hospitalized in our department because of severe myalgia and dysphagia, complicated with pleural effusion and massive ascites. Elevated muscle enzymes, Gottron’s papules, and electromyography (EMG) confirmed the diagnosis of DM. Combined immunosuppressive treatment consisting of intravenous immunoglobulin (IV-IG), intravenous-cyclophosphamide (IV-CY) and tacrolimus resolved her myopathy and dysphagia as well as pleural effusion and massive ascites. Her clinical course and the absence of other factors that cause pleural effusion and ascites suggest that these symptoms were related to the pathophysiology of DM.