The performance of a method that could accelerate the sorption process of biological materials was evaluated with respect to rapidness (expedition of sorption), comparability of equilibrium moisture content (EMC) values with the control (conventional static method) and effect of specific airflow rates on the rate of sorption, EMC, and sorption rate constant. For this purpose, a simple, compact, and inexpensive experimental setup was fabricated with a facility to agitate the conditioned air around the sample. Different forms of raw and parboiled rice kernels (rough rice, brown rice, and milled rice) of an Indica variety were used as sample material. Both adsorption and desorption processes were investigated under conditions of high humidity (80.27%) and tropical temperature (30°C). Sorption rate constants based on a first-order kinetic model showed a faster rate of sorption by the accelerated method compared to the control for determining the equilibrium moisture content (EMC). The accelerated method required 40-60% less time compared to the control method (static) to reach sorption equilibrium. Specific airflow rates of 79.14m3/min-m3 and lower showed the most similar EMC values to those of the control. The results showed that this method can be applied in order to expedite the sorption process.
We examined the phenolic contents of 45 species of vegetables and their radical scavenging activities for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH·). High contents of phenolic compounds and strong DPPH·scavenging activities were observed in extracts from Nishiyomogi, Ryukyuyomogi, Aojiso, Moroheiya, Hosobawadan, Bajiru, Ensai, Yaeyamakazura, Suizenjina, Botanbouhuu and Uikyou. Eight of these vegetables are traditional foods in Okinawa. These showed strong radical scavenging activities for the superoxide radical (O2-·) and tert-butylhydroperoxyl radical (t-BuOO·). We found five antioxidative phenolic compounds, D(+)-chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, in Hosobawadan (Crepidiastrum lanceolatum Nakai). Their detailed structures were determined using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, MS, and UV spectrometry.
L-Ascorbic acid (AsA) has numerous biological activities. It is known that AsA is unstable under neutral and alkaline conditions, degrading almost completely within several hours, whereas it is relatively stable under acidic conditions. The present study investigated the effect of grape seed extract (GSE), which contains proanthocyanidins, on the stability of AsA under neutral and alkaline conditions. The addition of GSE to AsA solution in 3,3′-dimethylglutaric acid-tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-2-amino-2-methyl-1,3-propanediol (GTA) (50mM, pH 7.0 or 10.0) buffer significantly increased the remaining amount of AsA and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, compared with those of AsA alone. In particular, it was clarified that GSE contributed to the stability of AsA at an alkaline pH. We also investigated the effect of GSE on the stability of AsA under quasi-physiological conditions. It was revealed that GSE stabilized AsA in simulated intestinal juice (pH 8.5) at 37°C. DPPH radical-scavenging activity was closely correlated with the remaining amounts of AsA. The present results, although not directly transferable to in vivo conditions, suggest that GSE may stabilize AsA under neutral and alkaline conditions and affect the physiological activity of AsA.
Anthocyanins prepared from colored potatoes induce apoptosis in cultured human stomach cancer KATO III cells. Morphological change indicating apoptotic bodies and DNA fragmentations were observed in cells treated with potato anthocyanins. Feeding with steamed red potato alone and purple potato alone suppressed by 46.2% and 38.5%, respectively, the growth of mouse stomach cancer as compared with the feeding with Irish Cobbler. Feeding with a 1% solution of red or purple potato anthocyanin with standard food suppressed by 47.6% and 38.1%, respectively, growth of mouse stomach cancer. So, eating of potatoes containing large amounts of anthocyanin to maintain the presence of potato anthocyanin in the stomach is recommended as a possible method for protecting humans from stomach cancer.
Shirasuboshi (boiled and semi-dried whitebait) is a processed seafood that is abundant in calcium. It is eaten whole and commonly consumed in Japan. In this study, we examined the effect of Sudachi (Citrus sudachi Hort. ex. Shirai) juice on calcium, magnesium and phosphorus bioavailability in healthy young men. Dried shirasuboshi powder treated with distilled water (C) or sudachi juice (S20) was prepared for use in two experimental diets, the control diet and the sudachi diet. Either S20 or C was added to a basal diet with a low calcium content (180mg/d). The basal diet and the two experimental diets were each consumed for 6d by six healthy young men according to a randomized and crossover design. The apparent absorption and retention of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus from shirasuboshi were determined and were found to be significantly higher in the sudachi diet than in the control diet. The apparent absorption and retention of calcium from the basal diet were found to be in negative balance. Our results indicate that shirasuboshi added to sudachi juice was associated with increased mineral bioavailability in healthy young men.
Seven polyphenols were isolated from leaves of New Zealand boysenberry. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis, the structures of these compounds were elucidated to be quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucuronide, kaempferol 3-O-arabinoside, kaempferol 3-O-(6″-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, and ellagic acid. Increases in plasma aspartate aminotrasferase and alanine aminotrasferase activities in mice, induced with liver injury by the injection of carbon tetrachloride, were suppressed by oral administration of the polyphenol fraction prepared from the leaves, with ellagic acid as its effective component. Thus polyphenol fraction contained in boysenberry leaves may be effective in suppressing liver injury.
The deodorizing effect of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) on the offensive odor caused by porcine large intestine was studied. Both 0.5 and 2.0g of coriander were found to deodorize the stench of 2.0g porcine large intestine almost completely, and the deodorant effect of coriander was maintained for 6hrs or more even after the peculiar odor of the coriander disappeared. We detected four main compounds that contributed to the porcine large intestine odor : 4-Methylphenol (a sludge-like substance), unknown compound I (porcine large intestine-like), unknown compound II (a sludge-like substance) and Indole (excrement-like). Eleven main compounds of coriander odor were detected : Decanal, 2-Decenal, Undecanal, 2-Un-decenal, 1-Decanol, (E)-2-Undecen-1-ol, 2-Dodecenal, (E)-2-Tetradecenal, Hexadecanal, Octadecenal and 9-Octadecenal. Although the four main compounds were not significantly decomposed by the coriander treatment, the coriander had a remarkable deodorant effect on the offensive odor emitted by the porcine large intestine.
An α-L-arabinofuranosidase gene of Aspergillus oryzae was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The re-combinant enzyme released L-arabinose from arabinose-containing polysaccharides such as lupin pectic galactan, corn hull arabinoxylan, sugar beet arabinan, and potato pectic galactan. The enzyme displayed an optimum activity at 45°C and pH 4.0. The enzyme was slowly inactivated above pH 6.0 and below pH 3.0, and was stable at temperatures up to 40°C. On the other hand, a putative endo-arabinanase gene of Strep-tomyces coelicolor was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme hydrolyzed linear arabinans and produced α-1,5-arabinooligosaccharides. The enzyme displayed an optimum activity at 45°C and pH 6.0. The enzyme was slowly inactivated above pH 10.0 and below pH 4.0, and it was stable at temperatures up to 35°C. Synergisms between the α-L-arabinofuranosidase and the endo-arabinanase for the degradation of arabinan and debranched arabinan were observed. The hydrolysis was most efficient when α-L-arabinofuranosidase and endo-arabinanase were in a ratio of 95 : 5.
Catechins were removed from tea leaves to examine if there were any other components having the antihypercholesterolemic activity. The prepared catechin-free tea extract, TE, contained saponins and caffeine. The intake of TE suppressed the increase in the serum cholesterol level of rats induced hypercholesterolemia, and enhanced the excretion of cholesterol into feces. Since caffeine has been reported to enhance the serum cholesterol level, the effect of TE on the reduction of the cholesterol level appeared to be due to saponins. In vitro experiment showed that TE inhibited the incorporation of cholesterol into micelles. From all these results, TE exhibited the antihypercholesterolemic activity probably by preventing cholesterol from being incorporated into the micelles and thus inhibiting its absorption from the intestine.
The radical scavenging activity of avocado epicarp extract was investigated and found to be about 2 times higher than those of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid. Radical scavenging activity was substantially retained after heat treatment at 180°C for 60min. The antioxidative activities of the avocado epicarp extract and α-tocopherol were measured by the thiocyanate method with a linoleic acid system. The activity of the avocado epicarp extract was higher than α-tocopherol, but a mixture of the extract and α-tocopherol did not show a synergistic effect on activity. The avocado epicarp extract was analyzed by HPLC, with 4 peaks, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and 2 unknown ones, being detected. These 4 peaks contributed to about 15% of the total antioxidative activity.
This experiment was carried out to study the mineral contents and profiles of several Indonesian green, brown, and red seaweeds, and to evaluate the solubilities of Ca and Mg as affected by boiling in different solutions (water, 1% sodium chloride and 0.5% acetic acid). The macromineral profiles were dominated by Ca, K, Na and Mg. The trace minerals Cu, Fe and Zn were found at low concentrations. Boiling in water and 0.5% acetic acid significantly increased the solubilities of Ca and Mg (p<0.05), whereas boiling in 1% sodium chloride resulted in varying solubilities of Ca and Mg. Mainly soluble Ca was found in both low (MW<10,000) and high (MW>200,000) molecular weight fractions, whereas soluble Mg was found in the high (MW>200,000) molecular weight fraction.
The new chalcone, 4′-methoxy-bavachromanol (1), was isolated from propolis collected on Jeju, a southern island of Korea together with two known compounds, laserpitin (2) and isolaserpitin (3). The structure of each compound was determined by spectral methods, including mass spectrometry and 2D NMR. The IC50 value of 1 against soybean lipoxygenase was 14.6μM.