Food Science and Technology Research
Online ISSN : 1881-3984
Print ISSN : 1344-6606
ISSN-L : 1344-6606
Current issue
Displaying 1-16 of 16 articles from this issue
Food Technology and Engineering
Original Papers
  • Chen Li, Zeng Niu, Min Zuo, Tianzhen Wang, Xiaobo Zou, Zongbao Sun
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 269-280
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 04, 2024
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    Conditioned steak is easily contaminated by foreign bodies, such as iron sheets, glass, and crush bones in the manufacturing processes, posing hidden safety hazards to consumers. In this study, the feasibility of using ultrasonic imaging to detect and identify foreign bodies in conditioned steaks was investigated. Firstly, the ultrasonic imaging data of foreign bodies was collected. Four discriminant models among them linear discriminant analysis (LDA), and extreme learning machine (ELM) were established, and based on the texture values of the smallest circumscribed rectangular area of the foreign bodies, the type was identified. The foreign bodies were then extracted by gray–level co–occurrence matrix (GLCM). The detection rate of foreign bodies was 97.78 %, meanwhile ELM showed the highest accuracy of recognition rate of 76.67 %. The results showed that ultrasound imaging technology could be used to detect foreign bodies in the conditioned steak and to identify the type of foreign body via pattern recognition.

  • Ruixue Xing, Tianchen Cai, Wenbao Jia, Qianting Ma, Xia Yin, Yangbo Xi ...
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 281-294
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 01, 2024
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    Jianghua Kucha (JHKC) is a special tea germplasm that has a certain degree of bitterness. Alkaloids (theacrine, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) are one of the bitter substances in tea. However, simultaneous comparison of bitterness thresholds at different temperatures and taste active values (TAVs) of alkaloids in JHKC are unclear. Furthermore, as a special purine alkaloid of JHKC, the interaction between theacrine and bitter taste receptors is not clear. In this study, comprehensive analysis of bitterness thresholds and TAVs of alkaloids in JHKC as well as theacrine-bitter taste receptor interaction were carried out. These results showed that thresholds of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, and theacrine at 15°C were significantly lower than those at 25 °C and 45 °C. Docking simulation results showed that theacrine had the best binding capability with TAS2R14. TAS2R14 amino acid residues Q2667.38, S652.60, and W893.32 may play a key role in docking simulation of theacrine, and hydrogen bonding and π-π interaction was the main interaction.

  • Mai Hirakawa, Hideaki Teshima, Tatsuya Ikuta, Koji Takahashi
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 295-303
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 12, 2024
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    In contrast to the freeze-drying process, the rehydration process of freeze-dried foods remains unclear. This study investigated the rehydration of freeze-dried soybean curd, also known as tofu, and elucidated its breakage mechanism during rehydration, which impairs texture. The rehydration of freeze-dried tofu was observed at different water temperatures (20, 40, 70, and 100 °C), with the required rehydration time found to decrease with increasing water temperature. Furthermore, tofu was found to absorb water faster in cracks formed during production than in the porous body. Crack expansion was observed only in high-temperature water, leading to breakage of the tofu. Environmental scanning electron microscopy revealed that tofu expanded when a sufficient amount of water was absorbed. Accordingly, crack expansion in high-temperature water is attributed to the stress concentration at the tip of the crack, which is caused by differences in the rehydration rate and resulting stiffness between the porous body and cracks.

  • Yoshiyuki Watanabe, Takashi Kobayashi, Pramote Khuwijitjaru, Shuji Ada ...
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 305-311
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 06, 2024
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    Fifty milliliters of 0.2 mol/L aqueous solutions containing two aldo-pentoses (ribose and xylose), two aldo-hexoses (glucose and galactose), and two aldo-disaccharides (cellobiose and lactose) were placed in a pressure-resistant vessel along with 0.5 g of uncalcined scallop shell powder and heated by a microwave oven at 700 W to isomerize the aldo-saccharides to the corresponding keto-saccharides (ribulose and xylulose, fructose and tagatose, and cellobiulose and lactulose). The yields of keto-saccharides were approximately 10 % for pentoses, 18 % for hexoses, and 25 % for disaccharides within 105 s. The selectivity from aldo-saccharide to the keto-saccharide followed the order of disaccharide > hexose > pentose. Measurements were taken for pH, calcium ion concentration, and absorbance at 280 nm and 420 nm. The acidic by-products formed during heating were neutralized by the shell powder, maintaining the pH of the reaction mixture above 7 to promote isomerization through Lobry de Bruyn–Alberda van Ekenstein transformation.

Technical Paper
  • Hideto Kimura, Tomoe Ishihara, Miki Ishida, Yu Hirabayashi, Mitsuo Jis ...
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 313-321
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2024
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    Indigo plant (Persicaria tinctoria (Aiton) Spach) has been utilized as a dye material with antioxidant activity. To increase polyphenol yield, alkaline water was used for the extraction of indigo leaves. Total polyphenol content and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of the alkaline water extract were higher than those of the pure water extract, whereas its β-carotene bleaching inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were lower. The predominant compound in the alkaline water extract was 3,5,4′-trihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (TMF)-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside. β-Carotene bleaching inhibitory activity of TMF was higher than those of TMF-O-glycosides. TMF-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside was hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase from rat small intestine most effectively among the TMF-O-glycosides. Our results showed that alkaline water extraction of indigo leaves is a useful method to increase the recovery of polyphenols, in which TMF-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside is the predominant compound, which can be easily hydrolyzed in the small intestine to TMF with high antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation.

Note
  • Ryunosuke Sugisawa, Takahiro Orikasa, Shoji Koide
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 323-330
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 27, 2024
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    In this study, fresh-cut cucumbers were subjected to near-freezing temperature storage at −2 °C (NF) for 12 d, and microbial population (aerobic bacteria and coliforms), physicochemical properties (weight loss, color, firmness, and pH), and O2 consumption were compared with samples stored at 5 °C (C). Observation indicated that no sample showed any critical freezing phenomena during near-freezing temperature storage. Results showed that the microbial population (aerobic bacteria and coliforms) was suppressed in NF samples but increased significantly in C samples compared with the stored samples on day 0. Results of physicochemical properties showed that weight loss and total color difference of NF samples were less than those of C samples. Moreover, near-freezing temperature storage at −2 °C inhibited O2 consumption compared with storage at 5 °C. These results provide new insights into the application of near-freezing temperature storage for fruits and vegetables in the food cold chain.

Food Science and Chemistry
Original Paper
  • Hejun Duan, Yixing Feng, Yumin Niu
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 331-341
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 19, 2024
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    To aid in the management of high-risk populations, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) exposure from formula and human breastmilk was estimated in newborns and infants (aged 0–24 months) in Beijing. Derivatization with dansyl chloride coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to analyze traces of BPA and 4-NP in human breastmilk. Danyl-BPA and danyl-4-NP were easily obtained as a highly selective method, which was applied to 118 human breastmilk samples. The results indicate that newborns and infants (aged 0–24 months) are safe in terms of dietary exposure when fed by breastmilk, but are at higher exposure risk when fed by formula milk at 0–12 months of age. BPA and NP exposure from human breastmilk is under tolerable daily intake of 4 µg·kg−1 bw.d−1 and 5 µg·kg−1 bw·d−1, respectively. These results supplement the estimated exposure database for BPA and 4-NP in Beijing, especially for newborns and infants.

  • Takuro Nakagawa, Tetsuya Miyamoto, Kenshi Watanabe, Shouhei Miki, Hiro ...
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 343-352
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 23, 2024
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    Egg-koji, fermented eggs by koji-mold (Aspergillus oryzae, A. sojae, and A. luchuensis), contains various enzymes that are expected to change the flavor and components of eggs. Digestion of whole egg liquid with egg-koji resulted in an increase in amino acid content, aroma component and free fatty acid formation, and a decrease in triacylglycerol level. Egg-koji AO101 (A. oryzae) increased the umami taste while maintaining its “egg flavor.” Egg-koji AS309 (A. sojae) showed reduced saltiness, which was considered to be because of the large amount of amino acids and aromatic ingredients masking the saltiness. Egg-koji AL434 (A. luchuensis) had a strong bitter taste, which was likely owing to the large amount of fatty acids. The characteristics of these strains are expected to lead to the development of various food products.

  • Shizuka Hase-Tamaru, Takumi Kamigaki, Ryusei Kanamaru, Tomomi Hara, Ta ...
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 353-365
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 13, 2024
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    Selenoneine exhibited high antioxidant action compared to ergothioneine, a traditional antioxidant ingredient, whereas other selenium compounds such as selenious acid and seleno-L-methionine showed no antioxidative properties in several evaluations. We enzymatically prepared a hydrolysate of mackerel protein (EMP) containing selenoneine. EMP also exhibited antioxidant action in vitro. EMP treatment modulated the secretion of interleukin-6 and -10, but not TNF-α, in cultured RAW264.7 macrophages. The safety of EMP intake, i.e., selenium-feeding, was confirmed in SD rats. Serum and hepatic triglyceride levels and serum insulin, leptin, and cholesteryl ester levels tended to lower in SD rats fed EMP. The elevated serum triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and leptin levels also tended to be decreased in KK-Ay mice fed EMP. These results suggest that EMP intake may be involved in the improvement of lipid metabolism, through immune modulation by the various antioxidants contained in EMP.

  • Wei-Jing Li, Kevin Odongo, Ken-yu Hironao, Yoko Yamashita, Hitoshi Ash ...
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 367-376
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: January 22, 2024
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    Black soybean contains various polyphenols such as flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins in seed coat and isoflavones in cotyledon. The content of polyphenols and their functions may vary depending on the variety and cultivation year. In this study, we measured the content of polyphenols in two black soybean varieties, Tanbakuro and Kurotsuru, over five cultivation years and investigated their antioxidant activity. Total polyphenol content in Tanbakuro was lower than that in Kurotsuru. Polyphenol contents in seed coat and cotyledon showed reverse trends during cultivation years. Variations in the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in the seed coat and cotyledon showed the same trend. We focused on flavan-3-ols and expanded experiments using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. (−)-Epicatechin and procyanidin B2 were easily permeated through Caco-2 cells than procyanidin C1 and cinnamtannin A2. Contents of (−)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in the permeated solution strongly correlated with their antioxidant activity in HepG2 cells.

  • Yoshiko Fukushima, Masayoshi Saito, Noriko Komatsuzaki
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 377-385
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 14, 2024
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    We evaluated the quality of the fermented confectionery kouglof made with different oils and fats as ingredients. We tested ghee and grapeseed oil (GO) for their potential health benefits as substitutes for the butter in kouglof, and we observed that the height and specific loaf volume of the kouglof with GO were higher than the those of the butter or ghee kouglof. Compared to the butter or ghee kouglof, the GO kouglof’s hardness value was lower as shown by textural analysis, its bubble volume ratio was higher by 3D/2D image analysis, and its structure model index value was near-oval. The linoleic acid contents of GO and the kouglof with GO were not decreased by baking. These results demonstrate that the GO kouglof was softer and more elastic compared to the butter or ghee kouglof, and that GO can be used as a substitute for butter in terms of health and palatability.

  • Yuzo Mizkami, Kano Miyamoto, Takashi Shiono
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 387-396
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 02, 2024
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    Most green tea beverages are sold in transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles and are displayed under lighting on the shelves in convenience stores and supermarkets. The exposure of green tea beverages to light sometimes results in off-flavors. The key aroma components contributing to the off-flavors of these beverages are unknown. We identified key aroma components contributing to the off-flavors induced by light exposure using aroma extract dilution analysis with gas chromatography–olfactometry. In addition, odor-active values of these components were calculated based on the threshold and quantitative values. Seven aroma-active components namely, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, were identified as the key aroma components contributing to the off-flavors induced by light exposure of green tea beverages. These seven components were lipid-derived aroma components, and we believe they are produced from linoleic and linolenic acids in green tea beverages upon exposure to light.

  • Yuki Nakaya, Tetsuyuki Katayama, Yukako Okazaki
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 397-408
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 28, 2024
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    To investigate the effects of edible mushrooms on colonic luminal variables, including fecal mucins, organic acids, microbial composition, immunoglobulin A (IgA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cecal organic acids, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 30% lard diet containing one of 12 species of edible mushrooms for 2 weeks. We found that the dietary intake of shiitake (Lentinula edodes), enokitake (Flammulina velutipes), white button (Agaricus bisporus) and yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) mushrooms elevated fecal ALP activity as well as increased fecal IgA, mucins, fecal Bacteroides ratio, and cecal total organic acids. In contrast, the intake of dietary eringi (Pleurotus eryngii), maitake (Grifola frondosa), tamogitake (Pleurotus cornucopiae), wood ear (Auricularia auricula-judae) and bunashimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) mushrooms had minimal effects on the colonic environment factors. We speculated that edible mushrooms could be grouped according to their effects on the colonic luminal environment.

  • Yongfang Zhang, Jia Ding, Fengzhi Tang, Mingming Wang, Yang Chen, Boya ...
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 409-417
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 11, 2024
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    In order to better explore the antibacterial chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of Astragalus Hengshan honey. In this study, Hengshan Astragalus honey was taken as the research object, and Shanxi Jingtiao honey, Shanxi Acacia honey, Xinjiang Jujube honey and Longxi Astragalus honey were taken as the control. The bacteriostatic effect of Hengshan Astragalus honey on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was evaluated by drilling method through physicochemical experiment and UHPLC-MS. The results showed that the pH value of Hengshan Astragalus honey was low (4.02) and the flavonoid content was high (0.349 mg·g−1). There were abundant bacteriostatic secondary metabolites in honey. 87 kinds of key bacteriostatic secondary metabolites were identified and selected by UHPLC-MS, including phenols, alkaloids and flavonoids. Maltotriose, D-2-aminobutyric acid and artemisinin were antibacterial markers of Hengshan Astragalus honey. The inhibition degree of Hengshan Astragalus honey on the three kinds of bacteria was Escherichia coli> Pseudomonas aeruginosa> Staphylococcus aureus. In summary: Honey is rich in bacteriostatic metabolites, and the bacteriostatic effect is affected by multiple indexes. The antibacterial component of Hengshan Astragalus honey is flavonoids, which has the best antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli. Honey is a natural antibacterial resource.

  • Ryotaro Hayashi, Satoshi Fukumitsu, Kazuhiko Aida, Shoko Kobayashi
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 419-430
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: March 21, 2024
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    Certain natural components are effective against inflammation, a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease progression. Although green tea contains sapogenins, their effects on brain function remain unknown. Herein, we focused on R1-barrigenol (R1B)—a major tea sapogenin—and evaluated its anti-inflammatory effects on mouse microglia. R1B treatment decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse microglia compared with those in LPS-treated control microglia. R1B reduced the mRNA expression of M1-type microglia markers and phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-alpha. These results suggest that R1B suppresses LPS-induced nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B signaling, a regulator of M1-type polarization. Therefore, it is suggested that R1B may reduce inflammatory responses by suppressing M1 polarization-type changes, and that R1B may exhibit preventive and therapeutic effects against neurodegenerative diseases.

Note
  • Sarangowa Ochir, Anuu Zorig, Qiherima Wang, Mikako Takasugi, Takashi Y ...
    2024 Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 431-438
    Published: 2024
    Released on J-STAGE: May 20, 2024
    Advance online publication: February 29, 2024
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    Rosa rugosa is a rosaceous plant used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases, such as rheumatism. Although the chemical constituents of R. rugosa petals have been reported, those of the pollen and their physiological functions remain unclear. In this study, two major compounds were isolated from R. rugosa pollen extracts for the first time, and their structures were identified using instrumental analyses as 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-(2″-O-α-L-rhamnosyl)-β-D-glucoside. The anti-inflammatory activity of flavonol glycosides isolated from R. rugosa pollen was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264 macrophages in vitro. They significantly inhibited nitric oxide release and induced nitric oxide synthase protein expression. They also significantly suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. These results suggest that the two flavonol glycosides in R. rugosa pollen have anti-inflammatory properties.

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