Angiotensin II and aldosterone are key hormones regulating sodium and water balance. Investigations of the taste system in rat have shown that the amiloride-sensitivity of the taste nerve responses to NaCl is enhanced by aldosterone treatment over a time course of several hours. A recent study further revealed that angiotensin II suppresses the amiloride-sensitivity of the mouse gustatory NaCl responses and enhances sweet taste sensitivity within one hour, without affecting umami, sour and bitter responses. These results suggest the presence of a reciprocal regulatory mechanism of salty taste sensitivity by angiotensin II as an acute suppressor and aldosterone as a slow enhancer in peripheral taste organs, which may play an important role in maintaining sodium homeostasis. Moreover, the possible cross-talk between salty and sweet taste modulation by angiotensin II signaling may optimize sodium and calorie intake.
Dark common beans have beneficial nutritional and functional parameters but contain flatulence-producing α-galactosides. The aim of the research was to study the effect of modified tempe-type procedure (mixed-culture fermentation of unhulled seeds) on the antioxidant parameters and α-galactosides level in the product, as compared to raw and hydrothermally processed seeds.Soaking and cooking significantly lowered the antiradical activity and the reducing power of common beans. Tempe showed higher activity against ·OH (IC50 9.34 mg), DPPH· and ABTS·+ (on the average of 45%) and higher reducing power than the hydrothermally processed beans. Tempe contained 29% more soluble phenols (1.76 g kg−1 DM), 140% more condensed tannins (1.03 g kg−1 DM) and 30% more flavonoids (0.35 g kg−1 DM) than soaked and cooked seeds. The level of raffinose (0.031 g kg−1 DM), verbascose (0.027 g kg−1 DM) and stachyose (0.242 g kg−1 DM) in tempe was 67%, 53% and 57% lower, respectively.
High-moisture rice flour was prepared by soaking polished rice in water, which was then ground in an electric ceramic mill and dehydrated by centrifugation. The yield of rice flour milled with water became largely constant with soaking times of 30 min or more at room temperature, and near-constant moisture content was reached with soaking for 50 min or more. The size of most rice flour milled with water particles was around 6 µm, and was not greatly influenced by soaking time or temperature. Starch damage rate was suppressed to an extremely low value of less than 2% with soaking for 50 min or more at room temperature. Investigation of the effect of soaking temperature revealed that there was a positive correlation between soaking temperature and starch damage rate. It is therefore not advisable to raise the soaking temperature above room temperature when milling rice with water.
To understand the influence of different extraction methods on properties of Camellia seed oil, the physicochemical properties, fatty acid composition, bioactive compounds content of camellia seed oil extracted by aqueous enzymatic extraction, expeller pressing, organic solvent extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction were investigated. No significant differences were found among acid values of extracted oils. The peroxide value of hexane-extracted oil and expeller-pressed oil was significant higher than aqueous enzymatic-extracted oil and supercritical CO2-extracted oil. The major fatty acids present in camellia seed oil were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. No significant differences were found in the amounts of the major fatty acids in the oils. The aqueous enzymatic-extracted oil had a higher content of total monounsaturated fatty acids, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, squalene and phytosterol than hexane-extracted and expeller-pressed oils. Nine phenolic acids were detected in camellias seed oils, and 3-hydroxytyrosol, benzoic acid, catechins, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and chlorogenic acid were the predominant compounds. The content of phenolic compounds in the aqueous enzymatic-extracted camellia seed oil was lower than that of other extracted oils. The phospholipid content of the aqueous enzymatic-extracted oil and the supercritical CO2-extracted oil was significantly lower than that of hexane extracted oil and expeller pressed oil.
We sought a method to increase γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in sesame seeds. When water was added to the seeds and they were heated at 60°C for 15 min, the GABA content increased over 8-fold compared to the starting seeds. The amount of water added to the seeds affected the production of GABA, with the addition of more water leading to production of more GABA. GABA production occurred during the first 10 min of treatment at 60°C. Moreover, the addition of l-glutamate resulted in further GABA enrichment. The results indicate that our method using a short-duration heat treatment can form GABA-rich products from sesame seeds.
The objective of this study was to determine the consumer perceptions of color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and residue of Chinese instant-boiled beef from 12 cuts of Qinchuan cows. The results of this study revealed that color, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and residue were highly correlated to overall liking (P < 0.01). These sensory attributes were significantly correlated to each other (P < 0.01). Residue explained most of the variation in overall approval (R2 = 0.403), whereas flavor, tenderness, and color explained 13%, 4%, and 2%, respectively, of the variation. SF values >9.08 kg and <6.83 kg belonged to tough and tender beef samples, respectively. All the cuts were accepted by the consumers; rib-eye roll, blade oyster, tenderloin, chuck-eye roll, and chuck tender were the most suitable for Chinese instant-boiled beef products.
The solubility of d-galactose, d-tagatose, and d-talose in aqueous ethanol (20 – 80 wt%) was measured in the temperature range of −30°C to 20°C. The solubility of each sugar decreased upon increasing the ethanol concentration and decreasing the temperature. The solubility of d-talose and d-tagatose was higher than that of d-galactose under all conditions. The temperature dependence of the solubility of each hexose can be expressed by the van't Hoff equation. The dissolution enthalpy of each hexose decreased upon increasing the ethanol concentration. The dissolution enthalpy of d-talose was higher than that of d-galactose and d-tagatose.
This study was to investigate the possible anti-apoptotic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on cisplatin (CDDP)-induced testicular apoptosis in male rats. The control group was treated with physiological saline, the GSPE (400 mg/kg) group, GSPE (200 mg/kg) + CDDP group and GSPE (400 mg/kg) + CDDP group were received GSPE orally at corresponding dose respectively, for 15 consecutive days, starting 10 days before a single intraperitoneal dose of CDDP (7 mg/kg) in CDDP group and GSPE + CDDP groups. Administration of CDDP significantly reduced the weight of testis and epididymis, sperm concentration and caused significantly increase in the apoptosis rate of testicular cells and expression of Bax and Caspase-3, decrease in the expression of Bcl-2, along with some histopathological lesions in testicular tissue. Therefore, pre-treatment of GSPE to CDDP-injected rats tend to prevent CDDP-induced lose weight of organs, testicular apoptosis and histopathological lesions. Presented data have documented GSPE have improvement effects against testicular apoptosis caused by CDDP.
Effects of the types of sugars and buffers, and pH on the formation of Maillard reaction pigments were investigated using the xylose-lysine and glucose-lysine model systems. Sugars (13.3 mM) and lysine (34 mM) were dissolved in acetate, phosphate, and tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) buffers and heated at 100°C for 60 min. The profiles of browning, reversed-phase HPLC, sugar-decrease, and gel permeation chromatography of each sample were examined. Browning was stimulated by phosphate and inhibited by Tris. With the rise in pH value, browning occurred more intensively, more sugars decreased, and more melanoidins were formed. Xylose samples turned darker brown than glucose ones. The ratio of absorbance at 400 nm to that at 450 or 500 nm increased in the xylose system with the rise in pH value, while that in the glucose system decreased. Low-molecular-weight pigments, dilysyldipyrrolones, were formed only in the xylose system, while melanoidins were formed in both systems. Lysine stimulated the degradation of sugars, polymerization, and browning in both systems, although more intensively in the xylose system than in the glucose one.
The aim of this study was to visualize the sorption of tocopherol acetate as a penetrant into polymer films. A matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) technique was used to visualize the distribution of tocopherol acetate in films during the migration process. A phytic acid-aided MALDI-IMS using 2′,4′,6′-trihydroxyacetophenone as a matrix allowed us to successfully visualize the absorbed tocopherol acetate in both ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films after 1 week-storage of tocopherol acetate at 40°C. The IMS technique allowed us to also visualize the actual distribution of tocopherol acetate inside the EVA/barrier/EVA laminated films, in which tocopherol acetate sorption was blocked at the barrier layer.
Blueberry (Vaccinium virgatum Aiton) leaf extract (BLEx) has attracted attention as a beneficial food component. Here, we examined the effect of dietary BLEx on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). Growth parameter data showed that 3% BLEx slightly reduced body weight and adipose tissue weight accompanied by inhibition of HFHSD-induced enlargement of adipocytes. Liver weight was significantly reduced in the 3% BLEx group secondary to reduction of lipid accumulation in the hepatocytes. HFHSD-induced augmentation of fasting serum glucose levels was ameliorated by 3% BLEx. HFHSD-induced increase of fasting serum insulin level, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) also tended to be ameliorated. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) revealed that 3% BLEx normalized HFHSD-induced elevation of the area under the curve for serum glucose, whereas dietary BLEx, even for the 3% dose, did not have a suppressive effect on the serum glucose change after OGTT. Taken together, these observations suggest that BLEx is a promising agent for the prevention of HFHSD-induced insulin resistance.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Garcinia cambogia extracts on body weight gain and fat accumulation in rats rendered obese by a high fat diet. Results showed that Garcinia Cambogia extracts could significantly reduce body weight gain, Lee's index, BMI, the relative weight of epididymal fat, serum glucose, serum triglycerol, serum non-esterified fatty acid and hepatic triglycerol content in rats under high-fat diet, and hepatic lipase activity also was significantly increased in HFD+L group. Adipose triacylglyceride lipase mRNA expression level was significantly increased in the HFD+M and HFD+H groups, hepatic adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 mRNA expression level in HFD+H group was significantly increased, adiponectin mRNA expression level in HFD+L group rats was increased, and adiponectin receptor 1 mRNA expression level was significantly increased in all Garcinia Cambogia extracts treated groups. These results demonstrated that Garcinia Cambogia extracts could attenuated fat accumulation and body weight gain in rat model with high-fat diet induced obesity possibly through regulation of lipolysis gene expression by affecting Adiponectin-AMPK signaling pathway.
Premna ligustroides Hemsl. is a traditional plant food material, but the chemical components, functional ingredients of the leaves and its antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts had never been studied. In this study, the moisture, ash, crude fiber, crude fatty, pectin, and amino acid were 8.95 ± 0.01, 7.76 ± 0.06, 7.86 ± 0.10, 12.93 ± 0.05, 19.21 ± 0.02, and 15.26 ± 0.16 g/100 g dry basis, respectively. Total flavonoids content of leaves was 74.35 ± 0.49 mg/g. Degree of esterification (DE) of the pectin was 66.67 ± 1.02%, and the unsaturated fatty acids occupied 64.71% of the total fatty acids, 17 amino acids which contained seven essential amino acids were detected. Fifty eight volatile compounds were separated and identified. The extracted flavonoids had higher reducing power than ascorbic acid at the same concentration, and had significant scavenging abilities on hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion radical, and DPPH radical. The results indicated that the leaves of P. ligustroides Hemsl. as a kind of botanical food has a great value of development and utilization.
In this study, probiotic ice cream are inoculated with Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05; L), made with either refined (cane sugar; R) or unrefined sugar (coconut palm sugar; U) at concentrations of 15%, 18% and 21% (w/w). The changes in ice cream eating qualities, antioxidant capacity and the survival of La-05 were evaluated. Probiotic ice cream made with unrefined sugar had better microbial survival than when refined sugar was used. Ice cream made with 18% unrefined sugar showed the highest La-05 survivability. There were no significant effects on the sensory score among the probiotic ice cream with different sugar levels. However probiotic ice cream made with unrefined sugar was most preferred by panelists. The antioxidant capacity of the ice cream showed those made with unrefined sugar tend to have a higher antioxidant activity compared to those made with refined sugar. The replacement of refined with unrefined coconut palm sugar developed the viability of La-05, antioxidant capacity and total acceptability of probiotic ice creams.
In this study, we investigated the effects of freezing temperature (−10°C, −30°C, and −80°C) on the freeze-thaw fractionation of soymilk. The physicochemical properties of soymilk samples were analyzed after freeze-thawing and fractionation (upper and lower layers). The weight ratios, protein and lipid contents, and 11S/7S ratios of the upper layers were essentially equivalent to those of the lower layers, regardless of the freezing temperature employed. On the other hand, the particle size of the lower layer increased as the freezing temperature was elevated. However, when the lower layers were heated, the particle size distributions were again found to be equivalent across the various freezing temperatures tested. Furthermore, the heated lower layers exhibited similar soymilk calcium coagulability and texture of the produced tofu curd across the various freezing temperatures. These results suggested that the fractions obtained by the freeze-thaw fractionation of soymilk were unaffected by freezing temperature.
An osteoclast is a large multinucleated cell that is formed by mononuclear preosteoclast fusion. Dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) is one of the key regulators of osteoclast cell-cell fusion. When tea extract was added to RAW264.7 cells stimulated by nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), the mRNA expression of DC-STAMP was enhanced while that of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), an osteoclast differentiation marker, was suppressed. These observations indicated that increased DC-STAMP mRNA in RAW264.7 cells by tea extract occurred independently of the RANKL-mediated signaling pathway in osteoclastogenesis. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) might be one of the stimulating factors. Moreover, the increase in DC-STAMP mRNA induced by tea extract tended to be higher than that induced by a reconstituted mixture of the four major tea catechins. On the other hand, the increase in DC-STAMP mRNA was also observed in RANKL-unstimulated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that tea extract modulates the expression of DC-STAMP mRNA not only in osteoclastic cells but also in the other cell types.
In this study, the antioxidant activity of edible polysaccharides such as alginic acid, chitosan and pectin were estimated using four antioxidant assay systems: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ferric ion reducing activity power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays, in minced pork meat as the storage test. Alginic acid had the strongest antioxidant ability to scavenge free radicals and reduce ferrous ion among all polysaccharides tested. Alginic acid inhibited the production of hydroperoxides and secondary oxidation products of lipids in minced pork meats during storage.
We previously reported on meyerin (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative) and 7-methoxy-5-prenyloxycoumarin, which are abundantly found in Meyer lemon (Citrus meyeri) relative to other citrus fruits. In the present study, the antitumor-promoting activities of these compounds were examined using the in vitro Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation test and the in vivo two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis test. 7-Methoxy-5-prenyloxycoumarin was suggested to have inhibitory activity on tumor promotion in the EBV-EA test, whereas meyerin exhibited weak activity. Furthermore, 7-methoxy-5-prenyloxycoumarin significantly inhibited mouse skin tumor promotion relative to control in the two-stage carcinogenesis test. These results indicate that 7-methoxy-5-prenyloxycoumarin has antitumor-promoting activity in vitro and in vivo.