The limited stability of liposome and high dose of cholesterol severely restricts the application of liposome as an effective formulation in food and drug fields. The feasibility of novel liposomes consisting of sphingomyelin and β-sitosterol, with high stability and lowering cholesterol function, was investigated. The result of molecular modeling indicated that liposome consisting of sphingomyelin and β-sitosterol was practicable. Gypenosides loaded liposome consisting of sphingomyelin and β-sitosterol (GSSL) was successfully prepared attaining a 91.3% entrapment efficiency, exhibiting an average particle size of 205 nm; −33.1 mV zeta potential with smooth continuous surface was observed by AFM. The results of stability experiments indicated that GSSL was more stable than that ordinary gypenosides loaded liposome composed of lecithin and cholesterol (GLCL). Furthermore, GSSL demonstrated much better lipid lowering effects than ordinary GLCL liposome. Therefore, replacing lecithin and cholesterol with sphingomyelin and β-sitosterol in preparation of liposomes is feasible and recommended.
In this study, hairtail surimi (HS) and soy protein isolate (SPI) blends were extruded using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The effects of feed moisture, screw speed, and barrel temperature on the texture and water-holding capacity of the extrudates were investigated using response surface methodology. HS and SPI were mixed at a ratio of 1:4; the screw speed was tested at three levels between 80 and 120 rpm; the barrel temperature was set between 140°C and 160°C, and the feed moisture was set between 30% and 50%. The digestibility and microstructure of the extrudate produced by optimum condutions were also studied. The results demonstrated that the physical properties were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the three process variables. Water-holding capacity and extrudate texture were found to mainly depend on barrel temperature and feed moisture, respectively. In vitro protein digestibility of the blends was improved by the extruding process.
In this study, encapsulation of retinyl palmitate using the kneading method was investigated. The wall materials tested were mixtures of one of three naturally occurring cyclodextrins (CDs) and maltodextrin (MD) at low moisture content, and the MDs varied in their dextrose equivalent (DE) values. The retention and stability of retinyl palmitate encapsulated in a matrix prepared from a combination of α-CD and MD (DE = 11) were superior to those observed for all other combinations of CDs and MDs (DE = 17.5, 28, and47). The stabilities of the encapsulated retinyl palmitate fitted Avrami's equation. The rate constants of the MDs with low DE values were lower than those of MDs with high DE values. The degradation rate of the encapsulated retinyl palmitate depended on the MD content, possibly because high MD content suppressed oxygen diffusion into the wall material. In the α-CD/MD matrix, the MD content was a more important factor than the α-CD content for the stability of retinyl palmitate.
The aim of this work is to develop a 2D model for the effective visualization of browning color formation on the upper surface of a sample during far-infrared radiation heating. Temperature and color (CIE L*, a*, and b* values) at a central surface position on Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqueradiata) and red sea bream (Pagrus major) were monitored over time. A mathematical approach was used to predict the upper surface temperature distribution according to the browning behavior of each sample by the insertion of noise functions. Estimated L*, a*, and b* values were obtained by inserting a plot of temperature profiles into the browning kinetic model. Color values were converted to an R′G′B′ color space, and the model was constructed using FEMAP software. The uniformity or non-uniformity of the browning color formation on the surface of the samples was visualized using the developed 2D model.
Concentration of coffee extract and pear (La France) juice flavor condensate was carried out by progressive freeze-concentration (PFC) and the change in flavor profiles before and after concentration was analyzed. The results were compared with those by reverse osmosis (RO) and vacuum evaporation at 50°C (Evp). From GC/MS analysis, nine major flavor components, all heterocyclic, were detected for coffee flavors while twelve flavor components, mostly alcohols and esters, were detected for pear flavors. In Evp, almost all flavors were lost from the concentrate. In RO, some components, especially esters and alcohols, selectively permeated through the membrane so that the flavor distribution balance was changed for the reconstituted product after concentration. In PFC, the flavor distribution balance was almost unchanged for the reconstituted product after concentration although a loss was observed to some extent because of the incorporation of solutes into the ice phase. This incorporation of solutes into the ice phase was proved to be nonselective because the flavor balance in the ice phase was also unchanged from the original. This nonselective separation mechanism between the ice and the liquid phase seemed to explain the good retention of the flavor balance in PFC.
Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) analyses were performed to identify commercially-irradiated potatoes. Increased PSL levels were observed in irradiated potatoes, regardless of their origin: the integrated photon counts (PCs) of untreated potatoes grown in 9 different fields ranged between −303 and 9194, whereas those for potatoes irradiated at 50 Gy were 23107 counts or more. Although the PSL from irradiated potatoes declined after exposure to room light, the PSL of ≥ 50-Gy-irradiated potatoes was stable after 4 months of storage in the dark. The integrated net PCs ranged from 41868 to 127226 counts in the commercially-irradiated potatoes (n = 10) after 2 months of storage. These results indicate that PSL analysis of the potato surface is useful for confirming the irradiation history before sale at a retail shop. TL analysis of potato surface soils enabled identification of commercially irradiated potatoes even after exposure to room light.
The article demonstrates a method of simultaneous determination for four pesticide residues (phoxim, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid and chlorantraniliprole) in bamboo shoot using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS)-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) cleanup and liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Bamboo shoot sample (5.0 g) was extracted with 20 mL acetonitrile and cleanup with 2.0 g dispersive primary secondary amine (PSA). The results showed the developed QuEChERS-MSPD-LC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid and effective. Average recoveries ranged between 87.5% and 107.2% with RSD values from 5.2% to 12.4% at two concentration levels (20 and 200 μg/kg). The method limit of detection (LOD) below the regulatory maximum residue limits for the pesticides were achieved. The sample preparation time is only 30 min, which is faster than the application of the traditional standard method (at least 400 min). In addition, the new developed method is more environmental-friendly due to the less solvent consumption.
The aim of this manuscript was to perform a nutritional and technological characterization of value-added products manufactured from tilapia wastes that have partial replacement potential for products commonly used by the food industry. All products displayed highest protein and ash content whereas lowest amount of carbohydrates compared with similar products already commercialized by the food industry. These products also displayed promising technological characteristics such as water absorption index (WAI), particle size average (PSA), water activity (Aw), and pH, which are relevant parameters for the elaboration of innovative food formulation. We concluded that instant soup and flours from tilapia wastes can be used in the food industry either for development and introduction of new food products on the market or for the replacement in current food products made from conventional flour sources, producing a healthy alternative on consumers.
Walnut milk, which is generally produced in the presence of stabilizers by homogenization, is being increasingly consumed by people in China, due to its good nutritional and functional properties. In this study, the mechanism behind the poor dispersion stability of walnut milk without stabilizer has been clarified as caused by heat-induced large aggregate formation from walnut oil bodies and protein. It was found that addition of raw soymilk into walnut milk could result in the stable mixed beverage by homogenization with subsequent heating. This was because raw soymilk played roles on decreasing the particle size of walnut oil bodies during the homogenization, and preventing the large aggregate formation from walnut oil bodies and protein during the subsequent heat treatment. Amino acid analysis showed that the stable mixed beverage contained more lysine than the walnut milk. In addition, the stable mixed beverage had higher levels of protein content (about 2%) than the commercial walnut milk (commonly < 1%) in China. Therefore, this study was meaningful for the convenient and value-added utilization of walnut.
Rice bran is a rich, natural source of γ-oryzanol, which has been reported to possess important health-promoting properties. The goal of this study was to incorporate this healthy ingredient into bakery products, and the effects of processing techniques on the retention of γ-oryzanol were investigated. Doughnuts and bagels were prepared with 10% rice bran added to high-protein formula flour. The products were sampled at various intervals during processing. Total γ-oryzanol was extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. Sensory attributes were measured for the control and supplemented bakery products. The results showed that the total γ-oryzanol content decreased by 22% and 12% in doughnuts and bagels, respectively. The manufacturing steps causing significant losses (P < 0.05) of γ-oryzanol were the following: proofing (-19.2%) in doughnut processing and boiling (-10%) in bagel production. Substitution of 10% rice bran significantly (P < 0.05) increased the darkness of the products. Sensory evaluation results indicated that doughnuts and bagels with 10% rice bran were considered more acceptable than the control (P < 0.05).
In order to improve the utilization ratio of mulberry tea 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), mulberry tea was prepared based on the common production process of green tea, and corresponding experimental design and statistical analysis were set using Design-Expert software. The results suggested microwave power 602.28 W and processing time 11.41 min were found to be optimal for microwave-assisted extraction DNJ. The confirmatory experiment showed the coincidence rate of detection was 99.58%. It provided a reference for efficient use of mulberry tea DNJ for people who would drink mulberry tea to control blood glucose levels or to prevent diet-induced obesity.
Small and large deformation rheological tests for mixed gels of gelatin, konjac glucomannan (KGM) and locust bean gum (LBG) were performed. For a total ingredient content of 1.1%, the hydrocolloid mixtures behaved as entangled polymer solutions. Higher relative weight fraction of KGM at this total hydrocolloid content resulted in G'-G" crossover at a lower frequency. Addition of KGM and LBG to 4% gelatin resulted in an increase in storage and loss moduli. Presence of LBG led to a stronger increase of the elastic modulus and a stronger decrease of the fracture force in puncture. The puncture peak force of binary gelatin/KGM and gelatin/LBG mixed gels was similar to that of ternary gelatin/LBG/KGM mixed gels at the same ratio of polysaccharide to protein, and was lower than the puncture peak force of pure gelatin gels at the same total hydrocolloid concentration. Addition of LBG and/or KGM to gelatin decreased the sensory hardness of the gels. Difficulty in chewing and swallowing was highest for hard pure gelatin gels and soft, but very sticky mixed gels with a substantial addition of LBG. The gel judged to be the easiest for mastication and swallowing was a gel obtained from 5% gelatin, 1% KGM and 0.5% LBG.
The purpose of this study was to create gluten-free bread for patients with celiac disease. In this experiment we looked for a viscous material as an alternative to gluten protein, and banana (Musa spp.) flour was selected. Gluten- free bread was baked with banana flour, starch, sugar (sucrose), compressed yeast, and water. Green (un-ripe, 0 day) and yellow (ripe, 5 days) banana flours did not exhibit good breadmaking properties (bread height (mm) and specific volume (cm3/g)). However, black (over-ripe, 44 days) banana flour showed good breadmaking properties. The suspension of black banana flour/water was dialyzed against a large amount of water, and was separated to nondialyzable (high-molecular-weight (HMW)) and dialyzable (low-molecular-weight (LMW)) fractions. The HMW or LMW fraction alone did not show good breadmaking properties, but a mixture of them did. When black banana flour or the HMW/water was heated at 127°C for 100 min in an autoclave, the enhancement effect of black banana flour or HMW/water with LMW fraction on breadmaking was lost, suggesting that the enzymes in black banana flour act as key materials. High amylase and protease activities in black banana flour could be ascertained by RVA (rapid visco analyzer) and mixograph tests, respectively.
This study investigated functional dipeptide (anserine and carnosine) concentrations and antioxidant activities of Silky Fowl. Fresh meat from Silky Fowl contained 1.6- to 2.3-fold higher carnosine content compared with other chickens (p < 0.05). The carnosine content of fresh meat from Silky Fowl was higher than the anserine content, in contrast to that of common chicken. Our study showed that the meat extract of Silky Fowl is a good scavenger of the hydroxyl radical. Significant correlations between the total dipeptide content of meat extracts and hydroxyl radical scavenging (IC50 values) activity were additionally revealed by multiple regression analysis (breast: R = 0.684, p < 0.001; thigh: R = 0.729, p < 0.001). Since Silky Fowl is especially rich in carnosine, these findings make this breed potentially useful as a rich dietary source of antioxidant dipeptides.
A rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line was used to study the effects of several polymethoxylated flavonoids (PMFs) and extract of Citrus reticulata ‘chachi’ peel (ECRP) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis. In PC12 cells, H2O2-induced apoptosis was accompanied by rising malondialdehyde (MDA) level, as well as reducing activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). However, treating PC12 cells with PMFs and ECRP blocked H2O2-induced apoptosis by decreasing the MDA level and augmenting the activities of SOD and GSH-Px. Moreover, liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection was developed to simultaneously determine nobiletin and tangeretin in rat plasma after oral administration of ECRP, using quercetin as the internal standard. Plasma samples extracted by liquid-liquid extraction were separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 column and detected by a UV detector. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 5.5 – 2757 ng mL-1 for nobiletin (r2 >0.999) and 6.3 - 2847 ng mL-1 for tangeretin (r2 > 0.999), respectively. The lower limits of quantification were 0.2 ng mL-1 for nobiletin and tangeretin. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 15% and the accuracies ranged from 3.4% to 12.2%. The recoveries of nobiletin and tangeretin were 91.1% – 95.4% and 93.7 – 96.2% respectively. Nobiletin and tangeretin remained stable at low temperatures (-20°C and 4°C) and after freeze-thaw cycles. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the main PMFs of ECRP extract after oral administration to rat.
Theaflavins (TF), thearubigins (TR) and theabrownins (TB) are the major polyphenols that determine the quality of black tea. These compounds were measured in black teas and their correlation with taste values and taste quality was investigated. TF, TR and TB in the black teas from Chinese markets averaged 0.24%, 4.07% and 7.59%, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that TF was positively and significantly correlated with astringency (r = 0.521, p < 0.05), aftertaste of astringency (r = 0.619, p < 0.01) and richness (r = 0.618, p < 0.01). TR was also positively correlated aftertaste of astringency (r = 0.530, p < 0.05), while TB was negatively correlated with bitterness (r = -0.486, p < 0.05). Taste score had a positive correlation with TF (r = 0.691, p < 0.01) and TR (r = 0.604, p < 0.05). Meanwhile, taste score correlated positively with astringency (r = 0.483, p < 0.05) and aftertaste of astringency (r = 0.518, p < 0.05). The result showed that black teas can be partially classified by cluster analysis using PCA components.
Changes in volatile compounds during early storage of an aseptic-cup (AC) coffee beverage without milk and sugar were examined. AC coffee samples were stored at 10°C for 0, 1, and 2 weeks. Retronasal aroma (RA) compounds of the AC samples were collected using a retronasal aroma simulator (RAS) coupled to a solidphase microextraction (SPME) fiber and then analyzed using gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-O analysis detected 17 odor compounds. Changes in the compounds during 2-week storage were quantitatively analyzed using selected ion monitoring GC/MS. Statistical analyses of the peak areas showed that eight compounds decreased significantly (p < 0.05) during early storage, and that trends of the decreases differed among the compounds. Furthermore, a duo-trio test using an analytical sensory panel confirmed that the aroma of the 2-week sample was similar to that of the 0-week sample upon addition of the model flavor (composed of the eight compounds) to the 2-week sample.
Effect of cooking temperature (40–100°C) on changes in protein composition of big head carp muscle and exudate was investigated. The results showed that the proportion of salt-soluble and water-soluble proteins in cooked muscle decreased with temperature up to 50°C and 60°C, respectively. Alkali-soluble proteins content in muscle increased with increasing temperature in the range of 40–98°C, while both non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and alkali- insoluble proteins content showed no significant change. Content of soluble collagen in muscle and collagen in exudates increased with increasing temperature. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS- PAGE) patterns revealed disappearance of most muscle protein bands when the temperature reached 60°C for water-soluble proteins, and 50°C for salt-soluble proteins, but proteins with molecular weight (MW) about 37 kDa was observed when heated to 98°C. Visible β and a band of collagen in exudates were clear.
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides which possess the unique ability to include a number of compounds inside their cavities. CDs have been used in tea to mask the bitter taste caused by catechins. In this study we investigated the complexes formed between theaflavin-3,3′-di-O-gallate (TFDg), a major constituent in black tea, and CDs (α-, β-, and γ-CD) using several NMR techniques and a computational simulation. 1H NMR spectral titration results and DOSY analyses suggested that TFDg interact with each CD. NMR experiments suggested that β-CD binds TFDg more tightly than α- or γ-CD. Additionally, a model for the complex formed between TFDg and β-CD was estimated by NOE measurements. The analysis showed that the galloyl moiety of TFDg was present in the β-CD cavity; this result was supported by computational simulation. The present study characterized the inclusion complex of TFDg and β-CD.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grape seed extracts (GSE) at different concentrations (0, 7.5 and 15 g/L) on the melanosis formation and quality of Pacific white shrimp during 9 days of iced storage. The melanosis formation was significantly inhibited and sensory quality was significantly improved in shrimp treated by various concentration of GSE, compared with the control. The increase of pH, total volatile basic nitrogen content and the total bacteria amounts of shrimp treated by 7.5 and 15 g/L of GSE was significantly retarded. However, the melanosis score, total volatile basic nitrogen, and pH values of shrimp treated by 15 g/L of GSE was lower than that treated by 7.5 g/L of GSE. These results suggested that GSE could be used as an effective natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents to inhibit postmortem melanosis and improve the quality of shrimp during iced storage.
We examined the effects of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus (St. thermophilus) starter cultures on the proteolytic processes occurring in fermented pork. The hydrolysis of myofibrillar or myosin B proteins was evaluated using SDS-PAGE. Significant hydrolysis was observed in myofibrillar proteins from the fermented pork with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures and the incubated pork with glucono-delta-lactone (GDL), in contrast to the control sample incubated without LAB or GDL. Although the specific proteolytic activities of each strain towards myofibrils were unclear, their hydrolysis of myosin B was clearly demonstrated. We concluded that myofibrillar protein hydrolysis occurring during the fermentation of pork is due to the combined action of meat endogenous proteases and proteases from Lb. bulgaricus and St. thermophilus.
Quinoa has strong antioxidant activity and a high amino acid score compared to common cereals such as rice and wheat. Therefore, cookies containing quinoa flour as a substitute for wheat flour were used to investigate the effects of quinoa on the oxidative stability and nutritional quality of the cookies. The antioxidant capacity of the cookies was increased by the addition of quinoa flour. As a result, the peroxide value of cookies containing quinoa was lower than that of cookies without quinoa after storage at room temperature. Additionally, quinoa substitution resulted in increased lysine content in the cookies. In sensory evaluation, the quinoa cookies were acceptable to the panelists. Quinoa is a functional and nutritious substitute for wheat flour.
Changes in microbial community composition of takana produced by a conventional fermenatation method with 6% (w/w) NaCl were analyzed. Harvested takana leaves were pickled with 6% (w/w) NaCl in Aso city, transported to our laboratory in Kumamoto city, and then incubated at the average monthly temperatures of the Aso area. The lactate concentration and D- to L-lactate ratio increased during the 180-day fermentation. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to determine the microbial composition of takanazuke on days 0, 19, 40, 90, and 180. Only Pseudomonas was detected on day 0, whereas Lactobacillus curvatus was clearly the dominant species on day 19. After 40 days, L. curvatus (56.9%), L. (para)plantarum (39.2%), and L. sakei (3.9%) were detected, whereas on day 90, the bacterial population consisted of L. (para)plantarum (50.9%), L. sakei (45.6%), L. curvatus (1.7%), and members of the genus Weissella (1.7%). The final microbial composition on day 180 of the fermentation was L. (para) plantarum (59.6%), genus Weissella (32.7%), L. curvatus (3.8%), L. alimentarius (1.9%), and genus Clostridium (1.9%).
The content of a kokumi peptide, γ-glutamyl-valyl-glycine (γ-Glu-Val-Gly), in several kinds of commercial fermented shrimp paste condiments was determined using a LC/MS/MS method after derivatization with 6-aminoquinoyl-N-hydroxy-succinimidyl-carbamate (AQC). Commercial fermented shrimp paste condiments from Indonesia (Terasi), the Philippines (Bagoong) and China (Xiajiang) were analyzed. The analyses revealed that the concentration of γ-Glu-Val-Gly in Terasi, Bagoong, and Xiajiang was 5.2 μg/g, 1.0 μg/g, and 0.9 μg/g, respectively. These results suggested that γ-Glu-Val-Gly is widely distributed in fermented shrimp paste condiments.
Three Allium vegetables, Welsh onion from Okinawa, and Wakegi from Okinawa and Nagasaki were subjected to salinity-stress using seawater. The K+/Na+ ratio of the three Allium vegetables clearly decreased; however, there was no significant effect on growth parameters. Of the three Allium vegetables, 10% seawater treatment of Welsh onion and Wakegi from Nagasaki clearly enhanced both the sugar content and antioxidant activity. Therefore, seawater treatment may be potentially useful for the development of value-added Allium vegetables, enhancing the palatability and food functionality.
Thymus vulgaris L. (Thyme) is an aromatic medicinal herb widely used in folk medicine, as a food seasoning and herbal tea, and as an essential oil. A 70% EtOH extract from the leaves of thyme was prepared and a component was purified and characterized using an in vitro bio-assay based on the inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). Ursolic acid (1), a known pentacyclic triterpene acid, was isolated from the leaves of thyme and its structure was characterized by 1H, 13C-NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by mass spectroscopy. Compound 1 showed an IC50 value of 3.05 mM. This is the first study to report the ACE inhibitory activity of 1.
The seed shell of Juglans mandshurica is a waste product from seed kernel processing in the food industry. For the first time, the optimal conditions of ultrasonic-assisted extraction for total flavonoids from seed shell of Juglans mandshurica (TFSSJM) were investigated and the antioxidant activity of TFSSJM was analyzed. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was used. The optimal conditions were obtained as flows: ultrasonic power 250 W, ultrasonic time 31.2 min and solid-liquid ratio1:31.4 (g/mL). The flavonoids yield was 6.62 mg/g under these optimal conditions. And TFSSJM had better capability of scavenging ABTS, DPPH and hydroxyl radical than BHT, there was dose effect relationship. IC50 of ABTS and hydroxyl radical-scavenging was 33 μg/mL and 0.762 mg/mL respectively. The results indicated the ultrasonic-assisted method could be used as an effective and feasible method to extract total flavonoids from seed shell of Juglans mandshurica, and TFSSJM had excellent antioxidant activity, which can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant.
Soybean isoflavones are expected to reduce the risks of various diseases. In this study, anti-allergic effects of soybean isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein, and equol, a metabolite of daidzein, were investigated by measuring the chemical mediators, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and histamine, released from rat peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) in vitro. Genistein and equol significantly suppressed the release of LTB4 from PEC stimulated by calcium ionophore without cytotoxicity, whereas the inhibitory effect of daidzein was weak. In contrast, they had no effect on the release of histamine from calcium ionophore-stimulated PEC. These data suggest that the soybean isoflavones and metabolite may contribute to allergy symptom relief by inhibiting leukotriene production, but not histamine release.