The completion of human genome project and the powerful tools of molecular biology together with bioinformatics technology give possibility to open the dialog between modern medicine and traditional remedies including Eastern medicine. Many of functional foods are originated from the traditional herbal medicine, and the scientific substantiation of the effectiveness of these products is required for the regulatory standards as well as for consumer protection. Needs for the reliable and efficient methods of scientific substantiation are increasing, and nutrigenomics may provide a short-cut way to scientific evaluation of many functional food ingredients and herbal medicine which have been used in the traditional societies for thousand years. Studies to apply nutrigenomic methodologies to the objective classification of Sasang body constitution types of Korean are reviewed. It is suggested that the empirical health food knowledge accumulated in the Eastern medicine may be explained scientifically by using the nutrigenomic methods, and it will contribute to open the custom-made nutrigenetic food age in the near future.
Conventional methods of dough development for the bakery products have very short storage time for the dough. Frozen dough, is the modification in dough development for increasing the storage time of dough for different bakery products. Frozen dough shelf life could be enhanced by the incorporation of different hydrocolloids in flour but there is decreasing trend in the quality of the frozen dough bakery products with the increase in storage periods. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of Arabic gum and Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) added in wheat flour on the rheological and baking performance of pizza prepared from frozen dough method. Frozen Dough Pizzas (FDP) were prepared from wheat flour by adding different levels of gums after 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of frozen storage. It was observed that water absorption, arrival time, departure time, peak time and tolerance index was higher in flours containing 3% CMC. Whereas mixing time and peak height percentage was found higher in the treatment having 3% Arabic gum. It can also be concluded from this study that the use of Arabic gum and CMC at the level of 3% on flour weight basis can improve the frozen dough pizza (FDP) quality. Frozen dough stabilizers have great potential for improving the overall baking quality of wheat flour during frozen storage.
The rheological properties of starch dough are important for the production of mung bean starch noodles. In this paper, the rheological behavior of mung bean starch dough (MBSD) was measured at different concentrations, temperatures, shear rates and temperature ramp. The results showed that MBSD is a thixotropic fluid, characterized by a viscosity that decreases with increasing shear rate, and increases with decreasing shear rate. However, the initial viscosity value was not restored, indicating the presence of unclosed hysteresis loops with different areas in corresponding plots. The rheological behavior of MBSD could be better explained by the Cross equation than by the Power Law equation. The Herschel-Bulkley equation made good predictions of flow behavior of pure starch slurry. MBSD was temperature-sensitive and suitable for the Arrhenius equation. MBSD with moisture content of 44w/w%, starch paste content of 24w/w%, shear rate of 10s-1 and temperature of 40°C exhibited a better flow performance for stirring and hanging during starch noodle production.
Disposal of spent sawdust matrix (SSM) after cultivation of Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) has been very problematic. In order to establish a new method of utilization, the feasibility of using SSM as substrate for ethanol production in the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) was investigated. When the physicochemical properties of SSM were investigated, it was clear that SSM was decomposed by G. frondosa during cultivation. SSM was more susceptible to attack by cellulase than wood chips (WC). Dry milling followed by hot water treatment using an autoclave was suitable for the pre- treatment of SSM prior to saccharification. The maximum glucose yield of the pretreated SSM was approximately 88%, about 20 times the value for WC with the same pretreatment. When SSM was used as a substrate for SSF, the maximum ethanol concentration was approximately 16gl-1 (this value implies a theoretical ethanol yield of 0.75 [g-ethanol/g-total glucose in SSM]). Thus pretreated SSM could be a good source for ethanol production by SSF.
The effect of the pore size of microfilters installed in a supercritical (SC-) CO2 bubbling device on the concentration of CO2 dissolved in the solution was investigated. Dissolved CO2 concentration in the solution treated with a microfilter was approximately 27% higher than that without a microfilter for lower CO2/sample flow ratio, whereas there was no difference in the dissolved CO2 concentration between treatments with and without a microfilter at a higher flow ratio. Additionally, at 25MPa, the dissolved CO2 concentration reached a maximum with a 10μm pore size microfilter. However, at 10MPa, the highest concentration of dissolved CO2 was achieved with a 1μm pore size microfilter, and this concentration was the same as at 25MPa. Therefore, it was found that the same concentration of dissolved CO2 could be maintained by minimizing the microfilter pore size and lowering the pressure from 25 to 10MPa.
The bread-making quality of flour made from two new Japanese bread wheat varieties, Haruyokoi and Kitanokaori, was evaluated, and the staling and texture of bread made from these flour types were compared with those of flour made from representative bread wheat classes, No.1 Canada western red spring (1CW) and Hard red winter (HRW). There was not a large difference in the bread-making quality of the above four flour types, except that the water absorption of the Kitanokaori flour was high, and the gassing power of the dough was low. Bread made from the two above-mentioned Japanese flour types (two new bread varieties) were quite soft after baking, and the degree of staling (changes in hardness) were somewhat lower than those made with 1CW and HRW. The cohesiveness of the two new bread varieties, i.e., the index of bread elasticity, showed higher values than those of others up to 1 day of storage. From the analysis of bread staling and the retrogradation of starch in bread, it was proven that the staling rate and starch retrogradation rate constants of the two new bread varieties were approximately the same as those of bread made from 1CW and HRW but the starch retrogradation of the new bread varieties was somewhat slower than that of the others up to 2 days of storage. The analysis of hardness and cohesiveness of the flour and starch gel from the above four flour types indicated that the softness and high cohesiveness of the two new bread varieties after baking were, to a great extent, the result of the soft texture of starch gel in these varieties. These results showed that the somewhat slow staling, especially staling in the early stage, and the extreme softness after baking of the two new bread varieties were attributed to the soft texture and low retrogradation of starch gel in the bread, which was related to the lower amylose content of these new flour types.
Recently there has been great interest in the biological effects of isoflavones. Intestinal flora play an important role in the metabolism and bioavailability of isoflavones. To estimate the effects of dietary isoflavones on physiological function, it is also important to estimate the role of intestinal flora on the metabolism and absorption of isoflavones. However, to date there have been few reports of intestinal bacteria that metabolize genistein into dihydrogenistein. Formerly, we isolated the dihydrodaidzein-producing intestinal bacterium TM-40 from a healthy boy's feces. The strain TM-40 produce dihydrodaidzein from daidzein and daidzin. The 16S rRNA partial sequence of strain TM-40 showed a 93% similarity to that of Coprobacillus catenaformis (Accession no: AB030218). This strain seems to be a new species and was found to metabolize genistein into dihydrogenistein. We demonstrate that the dihydrogenistein-producing intestinal bacterium was harbored in a healthy boy's feces. This is the first report of a dihydrogenistein-producing intestinal bacterium being harbored in a healthy boy's feces.
Recently, there have been advances in the genome analysis of numerous living organisms, including humans. In one post-genome study, the term “proteomics” has attracted much attention. Although proteomics have been widely investigated in the medical and pharmaceutical fields, only a few proteomic studies in the field of food sciences have been reported. Therefore, in this study, proteomic techniques were applied to an analysis of quality evaluations of fish during storage. Specifically, detailed changes in fish proteins during storage were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We investigated the early oxidative proteins of bonito muscle during storage, and several proteins were identified by homology search using the NCBI genome database. Thus, the proteomic technique is available to the field of food science.
As part of a study of the reuse of waste okara (OC), a residue of soybean products and a kind of industrial wastes, a novel antioxidant food material was prepared in which OC fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus (OT) was combined with banana. A synergistic effect on the reactive oxygen scavenging activity (ROSA) between OT and banana was estimated using the method of photon emission scavenging of reactive oxygen by XYZ system, and the activity of a mixture of fermented OC and banana (OTB) 4/3 (OT: banana ratio 4 : 3 by weight) was found to be approximately 30 times that of OC alone. It was concluded that the effective ROSA of OTB is attributable to components in the extraction residue after extraction with 80% ethanol and water. OTB could be useful as a novel antioxidant food material and/or nutritional supplement.
The effect of taurine on the survival of Saccharomyces cerevisiae after freezing and oxidative stress was investigated. Proline and NaCl were used in comparison. The accumulation of taurine in yeast cells seemed to lead to the enhancement of tolerance to both freezing and oxidative stress in yeast. Although taurine appeared to be less effective than proline in the development of freezing tolerance, when based on intracellular amounts taurine protected cells more effectively than proline. In order to clarify the effect of taurine on stress tolerance, the expression patterns of stress-responsive genes were observed using RT-PCR. In addition, the contents of glycerol and trehalose as well as the redox states of glutathione in the yeast cells were investigated. Our results suggest that taurine, as well as proline, may function as a cryoprotectant and/or an antioxidant in yeast.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of 12 diets, containing small quantities (1%) of different Chinese spices, on plasma lipids, lipid peroxides, and glucose, and liver lipids in mice. The mice were fed with experimental diets containing one of 12 different spices and control diets for 90 day. There was a significant reduction in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in mice in the star anise, clove and tsao-ko diet groups, and it was significantly higher in cassia diet group. The TBARS values were remarkably reduced in mice in the white pepper and tsao-ko diet groups, and it were significantly increased in the mice administered star anise and fennel. Plasma glucose concentrations were evidently lower in animals in the cassia and tsao-ko diet groups. In conclusion, some spices used in the preparation of Chinese food may have some positive effects on maintaining human health and preventing life-style diseases.
Amazake was prepared using yellow-koji (Aspergillus oryzae) or white-koji (Aspergillus kawachii). In both cases, when rice-koji and water were mixed in a ratio of 1: 2, saccharification was completed in 6h and reducing sugar was formed. Changes in antioxidant activity were investigated for each amazake saccharification process. In both amazake preparations, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity increased for the first 2h of the saccharification period, and then gradually decreased. The lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity with β-carotene, however, did not change with saccharification time in either amazake preparation, and the antioxidant activity was roughly constant during saccharification. Next, both types of amazake were prepared by saccharifying for 6h at 55°C , with the respective rice-koji obtained with different koji production times (42, 48 and 54h). Antioxidant activity was then compared. It was found for both types of rice-koji that longer koji production time yields amazake with higher DPPH radical-scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity.
Dehulled or whole white common beans were crushed and milled, then cooked with or without enzyme treatment. Protein digestibility of the flour and cooked pastes were examined by in vitro pepsin assay. Heat-crushing at 200°C prior to the milling process appeared not to affect the digestibility of proteins in the flour. Phaseolin, which is the most abundant protein of common beans, lectin, and several minor components showed resistance to pepsin digestion. In cooked pastes, the basic subunit of legumin was remarkably tolerant to pepsin digestion. Using amylase/protease treatment during paste cooking, most of the proteins were degraded, but those that remained in the pastes as well as used enzymes seemed to be resistant to pepsin.
Four Nigerian medicinal plants used for the treatment of various ailments in traditional ethnomedicine were evaluated for their anti-diabetic potential. The plants Irvingia gabonensis (O'Rorke) Bail, Eucalyptus torreliana F.v. Muell, Securidata longependuculata Fers and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack were used in the study. Only the aqueous extract of I. gabonensis exhibited a potent maltase-inhibitory activity with an IC50 of 0.10mg/mL, as well as a sucrase-inhibitory activity (IC50 of 0.11mg/mL), whereas α-amylase inhibitory activity was quite poor (IC50 of 0.53mg/mL). A significant lowering of the blood glycemic response to maltose ingestion in 8-week old Sprague-Dawley rats was observed at a dose of 300mg/kg, in response to significant reduction in postprandial insulin response level.
Egg white sols diluted with various liquids are easily converted to soft, smooth gels by heating. In this study, the effects of various salts on the properties of diluted egg white gels were investigated. Using univalent NaCl or KCl, the breaking strength of gels was lower than for divalent MgCl2 or CaCl2, though it increased gradually with increased salt concentration. The amount of liquid released by syneresis from gels with divalent salts was significantly larger than those with univalent salts. Moreover, the breaking strength of gels with the same charge showed the same behavior, by adjusting to the same pH value of the sols. Thermal analysis (DSC) showed a peak assigned to ovalbumin, which shifted to a slightly higher temperature with univalent salts added.