Green tea processed from Camellia sinensis leaves is a common beverage with enormous medicinal importance. The accumulating evidences derived from in vitro, animal studies and human trials say loud for its diverse therapeutic potentials. The polyphenol rich tea extract has been validated to offer benefits as cancer prevention, amelioration of diabetes side-effects, cardiovascular safety, cognitive boost, promotion of weight loss, skin care, allergy suppression, protection from osteoarthritis, prebiotics etc. The flavanols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) have been identified to confer most of the biological effects. This review has been composed to keep track of the recent breakthroughs in this rapidly evolving area of dietary supplements. Mechanisms of functionality have been mentioned where ever deemed essential.
An imaging method using fluorescence fingerprints (FFs) for visualizing the distribution of gluten and starch in dough without any staining was developed. Wheat flour dough was mixed up to three stages, i.e., under-mixing, optimum-mixing, and over-mixing, and thin sections of the doughs were prepared with a cryotome. Fluorescence images of the sections were acquired in 63 combinations of excitation and emission wavelengths, thereby constructing the FFs of the constituents at each pixel. The cosine similarity between the FFs of each pixel and the FF of pure gluten were calculated and pixels were arranged in order of cosine similarity. Pixels with higher values of cosine similarity were categorized as “gluten” and the rest as “nongluten”. The number of pixels categorized as “gluten” was based on the overall ratio of gluten in the dough. The same process was performed with the FF of pure starch, and all pixels were divided into “starch” and “nonstarch”. Colors were assigned to each division, and the distributions of gluten and starch were visualized. Changes in the distributions of gluten and starch were observed at the over-mixing stage, which suggested the breaking up of gluten and the alteration of gluten and starch.
An in-situ color measurement method during heating in an oven is required for optimizing the oven cooking operation. However, conventional colorimetric apparatus is not applicable because such processes usually involve high temperatures and wet surfaces. In this study, we equip an oven chamber with optical fibers connected to a halogen light and spectrometer to perform the in-situ (real time) color measurement. To demonstrate the usability of this method, we observed the color change in white bread heated by hot air and superheated steam at 200°C as a trial experiment, and compared results from two other types of colorimetric measurements of the samples after heating: a color image recording system using a digital camera, and a commercial spectrophotometer. We found that the value of L* decreased more quickly, and b* had a lower value for baking by superheated steam in comparison with baking by hot air at the same temperature.
Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are rich in phenolic compounds which show antioxidant properties. Roasting is one of the most important unit operations in the cocoa base industries which reduces the antioxidant activity. Cocoa beans were subjected to roast at 150, 200 and 250°C for 10 − 50 min using conventional and superheated steam methods on changes in the total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant properties. The total phenols and total flavonoid were significantly (p < 0.05) higher using superheated steam than conventional roasting method. The cocoa beans treated by conventional method showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant properties than superheated steam roasting method.
Use of groundnut products in feed and food industry has increased steadily over the past decade and produce large variety of nutrients for human and animal nutrition. The aim of the study presented in this paper was to investigate fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity in groundnut and various groundnut products. Whole kernel, oil, cake and grits of groundnut were investigated. Total fat content was extracted from the samples by supercritical fluid extraction with CO2, and fatty acid profile was determined on gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector. Most prevalent fatty acids in groundnut and groundnut products, except in groundnut oil, were C16:0, C18:2ω6, C18:1, and C18:3ω3. All examined samples have had PUFA/SFA ratio higher than 0.4, and thus, groundnut and its products can be considered as favorable. Examined groundnut and groundnut products have had ω6/ω3 ratio higher than 4 (preferred ratio is less than 4), Meanwhile, whole kernel, seed oil and groundnut cake extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide contained approximately 46.3 − 81.6% unsaturated fatty acids and kerenel and fat grit showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical as compared to reference linoleic acid and therefore whole kernel, seed oil and groundnut cake cannot be used as the only source of fatty acids in human and animal nutrition but also as strong antioxidant agents.
The effects of various mixtures of pork leg meat and chicken breast meat, ranging from 0 to 100% on quality attributes of raw meat-emulsion batters and kung-wans were investigated. Increasing the content of chicken breast meat altered the color by increasing lightness and yellowness, increased protein solubility, and increased hardness. Hardness and springiness play important roles in kung-wan, and consumers prefer those having a firmer, harder texture. The emulsion stability changed with different mixtures of pork leg meat and chicken breast meat. With mixtures of meats, the emulsion stabilities were lower. The treatments which containing chicken breast meat had a higher storage modulus than 100% pork leg meat at temperatures higher than 60°C, and so had better texture. The results showed that chicken breast meat, at 50% substitution for pork leg meat, improved the quality of kung-wan.
The recovery of anthocyanin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) hull was investigated using an aqueous methanol solvent acidified by Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) juice in comparison with the conventional HCl acidified methanol solvent. The addition of 0.20 mL lime juice/mL to an aqueous methanol extraction solvent gave a maximum total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA) recovery of 4.742 ± 0.590 mg cy-3-glu/g hull powder compared to 2.950 ± 0.265 when using an HCl acidified extraction solvent at 0.20%. This acidified aqueous methanol extraction solvent using lime juice produced an increase of 60.75% anthocyanin which suggests that this natural lime juice can be a good acidifying agent. The quantity of lime juice or HCl added to the extraction solvent was found to be a more important factor than its pH value in influencing TMA yield. A lower particle size of hull powder of 250 μm to 500 μm was also found to give the highest recovery of anthocyanin (p < 0.05).
The inactivation effect of infrared (IR) heating (peak wavelength of the lamp = 0.96 μm) at different intensities on two kinds of mold conidia (Cladosporium sp. and Penicillium sp.) isolated from peaches was investigated on an agar growth medium. Treatment times of 40 s and 60 s were required for a one log reduction in the population of Cladosporium sp. and Penicillium sp. microorganisms at a heating distance of 90 mm. The high resistance to IR heating exhibited by Penicillium sp. was caused by its high lethal temperature (Tref) of 326 K, whereas Tref of Cladosporium sp. is much lower at 316 K. The first order kinetics model parameters under non-isothermal conditions were obtained from the data. The prediction model agreed well with the experimental data with a Root Mean Squared Logarithmic Error (RMSLE) of 0.74 and 0.45 for Cladosporium sp. and Penicillium sp., respectively.
Aqueous solutions of dispersed lycopene in which gum arabic, gum ghatti and polyglycerol monostearate ester had been used as emulsifiers were photoirradiated. The photodegradation rate of lycopene tended to vary depending on the amount of polyglycerol monostearate ester used. We found that the photodegradation rate of lycopene with polyglycerol monostearate ester was considerably slower than those with gum arabic and gum ghatti. Therefore, this study suggests that the absorption state of the emulsifier on the crystal surface may affect the photodegradation rate of lycopene.
The quality of starch-containing foods is significantly impaired by contamination with small amounts of α-amylase, which hydrolyzes the starch and causes viscosity loss. We examined the effect of different temperatures and times on inactivation of α-amylase in starch-containing foods. Model foods containing a known amount of human salivary α-amylase (HSA) were incubated at temperatures from 60 to 80°C for 30 min. In the case of a 3% starch suspension incubated at 70°C, it took 10 min before the viscosity loss ceased, by which time the viscosity was halved. In 0.1 − 3% starch suspensions at pH 5.5, the inactivation of HSA could be described by a first order kinetic model. The presence of starch decreased the inactivation rate constant by decreasing the Arrhenius frequency factor. To prevent viscosity loss by α-amylase contamination in starch-containing foods, the inactivation time and temperature should be increased with increasing concentration of starch.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of operating time and emulsifier type on the production of oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions during long-term continuous microchannel (MC) emulsification. The continuous phase used was an aqueous solution containing 1.0 wt% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate (Tween 20). On day 1, uniform soybean oil droplets with an average diameter (dav) of 22 − 23 μm and a coefficient of variation (CV) of < 3% were successfully generated using a silicon grooved MC array plate (model CMS6-2), regardless of the emulsifier type. For the SDS-containing system, the dav and CV values and the smooth droplet generation were almost unchanged during 7 days of continuous MC emulsification. For the Tween 20-containing system, we observed a slight increase in dav, a gradual increase in CV, and asymmetric droplet generation between days 3 and 7.
Schizandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill (SC) is useful for the regulation of various pathological conditions in Northeast Asia and is known to possess antioxidant activity. Here, triterpenoid of SC (TSC) was isolated from ethanol-water extracts of SC by using an octadecylsilyl column and shown to be one of the major active constituents of SC. The hepatoprotective effects of TSC in a mouse model of acute alcohol-induced liver injury (AALI) were evaluated based on serum biochemical indicators and antioxidative capacity. Severe liver damage caused by alcohol intake with increasing activation of hepatic markers was decreased in the group of mice fed TSC, and the results were confirmed through hematoxylin and eosin staining. Serum biochemical indicators and antioxidative capacity were decreased by alcohol but recovered by TSC. Furthermore, TSC increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduced inflammatory reactions. The experimental results indicate that TSC has preventive and therapeutic effects against AALI.
This study was performed to examine the effect of rutin in buckwheat noodle on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Buckwheat noodles were prepared by traditional Japanese methods, and the experimental diets contained 40% dried buckwheat noodle powder. In experiment 1, rats from CLEA were fed Control (0), Low-rutin (182), Medium-rutin (385), High-rutin (980 mg rutin/100 g) or Catechin (352 mg catechin/100 g) diet for 3 weeks, and in experiment 2, rats from Charles River Laboratories were fed Control or High-rutin diets for 4 weeks. Results indicated that serum total cholesterol level in Medium- and High-rutin groups and the level of free fatty acids in the High-rutin group were significantly lower than that in the Control group (experiment 1). The former result was shown to be reproducible in experiment 2. These results suggested that the rutin in buckwheat noodle has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism.
The genus Saccharomyces includes industrial yeasts that are used for bread and alcoholic beverage production. Saccharomyces strains isolated from natural resources, referred to as “wild” yeasts, are used for making products with strain-specific flavors that are different from those of the “domesticated” industrial yeasts. The physiological effects of wild yeast are poorly understood. In this study, we isolated 2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (S02 − 03) and 5 Saccharomyces paradoxus strains (P01 − 02, S01, S04 − 05) from natural resources in the Kiso area and investigated the effect of these fungal strains on IgE production by mouse spleen cells. Culturing spleen cells with heat-killed yeasts resulted in elevated IFN-γ and IL-12 levels followed by significant reduction in IgE levels. The S03 and P01 strains induced IL-12 p40 and IL-10 expression in RAW264 cells. Thus, wild strains of S. cerevisiae and S. paradoxus regulate macrophage cytokine production to improve the Th1/Th2 immune balance and suppress IgE production.
Ginkgo biloba seed proteins were hydrolyzed using alkali protease and pepsin to obtain antioxidant peptides. Ginkgo biloba antioxidant peptides (GKAPs) were separated by Sephadex G-25 and Sephadex G-10 gel filtration chromatography. The GKAP B3 exhibited highest antioxidant activity. B3 peptide was separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and 2 peptides with good antioxidant activity, i.e., GKAPs C8 and C9, were obtained. The molecular weight and amino acid sequences of the peptides were identified by Liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF-MS). The results showed that the molecular mass of GKAP C8 was 452.21 Da and the amino acid sequence was YVGD (Tyr-Val-Gly-Asp), while the molecular mass of GKAP C9 was 988.49 Da and the amino acid sequence was LGNTDYAVH (Leu-Gly-Asn-Thr-Asp-Tyr-Ala-Val-His). GKAPs C8 and C9 exhibited good free radical-scavenging effect and inhibited the autoxidation of the linoleic acid system.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral safety of Lactobacillus salivarius REN, a probiotic isolated from the fecal samples of a healthy centenarian. BALB/c mice were respectively orally administered with 0, 3 × 108, 5 × 109, or 2 × 1010 CFU/mouse daily for 28 days, or injected intraperitoneally with 5 × 109 CFU/mouse in a single dose, then killed at day 2 and day 5 after injection, respectively. The results indicated that oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius REN had no adverse effects on body weight, food intake, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, and there was no treatment-associated bacterial translocation to the blood, liver, spleen, or kidney. Intraperitoneal injection caused bacterial translocation to the liver, spleen, and kidney, except blood, the translocation did not trigger illness or death. This study suggests Lactobacillus salivarius REN is likely to be safe for human consumption.
The F1F0-ATPase β-subunit mutation strain L. plantarum LPM21 was screened to resolve the post-acidification of Sichuan pickle products caused by the probiotic adjunct cultures L. plantarum during product handling, transportation or storage at ambient temperature. Ser-268 mutation into Leu-268 in F1F0-ATPase β-subunit of LPM21, located in the interaction interface of F1F0-ATPase α- and β-subunit, triggered a 43.44% drop in the ATPase activity. In MRS broth, LPM21 could not grow under desired pH 4.2 and its acid production was about 1/2 of parent L. plantarum CCTCC 207202. When LPM21 cultures were incorporated into aseptic Sichuan pickle products, the pH of products was 4.3 after 7 d incubation at 30°C, above the critical pH limit of 4.2. Furthermore, LPM21 viable count with 7.27 log CFU mL−1 satisfied the criteria for a probiotic food product. Therefore, L. plantarum LPM21 as probiotic adjunct has the potential for reducing the post-acidification of probiotic Sichuan pickle.
The effect of frozen storage at −20°C and −50°C on the structure of myofibrillar proteins (MP) from silver carp was determined using several analytical methods. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms demonstrated that the thermal stability of MP decreased and some structural changes occurred particularly in the rod-like tail portion of myosin. The trend of surface hydrophobicity was first an increase and then a decrease, indicating that the unfolding of protein molecules and exposure of buried hydrophobic residues occurred firstly, followed by the aggregation of MP through hydrophobic interactions, and this was also supported by intrinsic fluorescence and Raman. Circular dichroism and Raman data indicated that there was a decrease in α-helix content with a concomitant increase in β-sheet during storage. All the experimental data confirmed that the MP stored at −20°C suffered more pronounced structural alteration than those stored at −50°C.
The peach palm cultivated for the industrial canning of heart-of-palm has different portions whose utilization can be maximized. The aim of this work was to evaluate the composition and structure of all portions of peach palm rod and to investigate the possible utilization of the by-products for flours processing. The central edible portion had the highest content of protein, fat, starch and the lowest level of dietary fiber. The highest content of oxalic acid was found in the shell. The tissue is formed by fibrous elements, xylem and phloem vessels, amiloplasts and calcium oxalates in druses and raphides. Although the oxidative enzymes of by-products were inactivated during drying at 90°C for 36 h, the color parameter indicated that the flours should be dried at 60°C. The median sheath flour had a lower content of oxalic acid and tannins than the stem flour, but similar content of phytic acid.
In this study, constant-pressure filtration was carried out to examine the blocking mechanisms during soymilk separation. In the filtration experiments, okara was deposited on filter paper of the membrane module in view of the separation process in soymilk. We found that a standard blocking model could be applied to explain the filtration behavior of soymilk by the okara layer at temperatures between 70 and 90°C. The initial filtration rate monotonically increased depending on decreasing viscosity, but the blocking coefficient decreased as the soymilk temperature increased below 85°C, but increased at 90°C. In order to clarify the temperature dependence of the dispersion states of soymilk particles, we determined the particle size distribution and ζ-potential of soymilk particles. The temperature dependence of the blocking coefficient was related to the average size of particles in soymilk. Therefore, the behavior of blocking in the okara layer would be considered the main issue in the soymilk separation process.
Citrus fruits are major agricultural products of China and they are rich sources of health beneficial substances. In this study, Raman spectroscopy as a rapid and non-destructive tool was employed to classify eight different citrus fruits. Baseline drift caused by fluorescence of organic compounds in the citrus samples interferes with the Raman signals. A polynomial fitting based method was adopted for baseline correction, which is a key factor both for Raman peaks assignment and subsequent pattern recognition. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were the two selected pattern recognition techniques. PCA showed the distribution of sweet oranges and mandarins, and HCA was a useful guide for detailed relationship between various citrus samples. The results demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition techniques has substantial potential for discriminating varieties of citrus fruits.
Ingestion of winter savory extract has been reported to inhibit the decrease in peripheral body temperature in people who experience cold sensitivity. However, the active ingredients underlying this effect are not known. We sought to elucidate the effects of the volatile components of winter savory on body temperature. Carvacrol (the main volatile component and a transient receptor potential channel ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonist in winter savory) increased core body temperature, but did not inhibit the decrease in peripheral body temperature after ingestion. In addition, the volatile fraction of winter savory (which contained various components in addition to carvacrol) induced not only an increase in core body temperature, but also inhibited the decrease in peripheral body temperature. These results suggest that the volatile components in winter savory may be effective for alleviating cold sensitivity, and that carvacrol is one of the active ingredients in winter savory.
The marine cordgrass Spartina anglica has even been considered as an invasive plant in recent years. But their huge biomass was also useful bio-resource for various bioactive substances. In this paper, the ethanol extracts of S. anglica were screened for their antioxidant activities, and bioactivity-guided isolation by macroreticular resin column chromatography, polyamide column chromatography lead to a potent antioxidant fraction. Finally, with the help of HPLC and NMR techniques, three flavonol glycosides were identified as: 5,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxy-flavonol-3-O-glucosyl-(1→6)-glucosyl-7-O-rhamnoside (1), 5-hydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-flavonol-3-O-glucosyl-(1→6)-glucosyl-7-O-rhamnoside (2), 5-hydroxy-3′-methoxy-flavonol-3-O-glucosyl-(1→6)-glucosyl-7-O-rhamnoside (3). Among them, compounds 1 and 3 showed potent antioxidant activities, and 2 and 3 were novel compounds. These compounds may contribute for the antioxidant activities of the Spartina extracts.
Matcha is a kind of Japanese green tea that is traditionally used for the Japanese tea ceremony, Sado, and has, in recent years, also been used as a food ingredient. In addition, Sado and food items containing matcha are becoming popular in countries where matcha drinking is a new experience. Therefore, information on the quality of matcha is important for manufacturers, dealers, and consumers in order to produce, select or purchase a product that meets their purpose. To obtain objective information on matcha tastes, we developed a standardized method for evaluating the astringent and umami tastes of matcha using a taste sensor system with standard substances, (–)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCg) for astringent taste and monosodium glutamate (MSG) for umami taste. The precision of these evaluation results was sufficient for its practical use. The evaluation method was applied to commercial matcha samples, and it was revealed that the method has the potential to characterize, in detail, the taste of matcha for different uses.
Cold-pressed flaxseed oil-cake is rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. The aim of the study was to examine to what extent the inclusion of this by-product as a fermentation co-substrate can influence the nutritional value of tempeh obtained from grass pea seeds. Flaxseed oil-cake introduction to grass pea seeds (5 − 35% w/w) resulted both in increasing fat content in tempeh products, from 50 to 190%, and in changing the fatty acids profile. n-3 Linolenic acid share in total fatty acids was from 3.6 to over 10 times higher in tempeh with oil-cake addition, dependently on the dose. Furthermore, these products had more advantageous n-6/ n-3 fatty acids ratio (2.5/1 to 0.5/1) than grass pea tempeh (11/1). Grass pea tempeh contained about 300 g/kg protein, of which almost 70% was available in vitro. The introduction of oil-cake to fermentation substrate neither decreased the protein level in tempeh, nor lowered its in vitro availability. Protein of products enriched in oil-cake had lower Lys content by 6 − 12% but higher sulphur amino acids level by 10 − 46% than that of grass pea tempeh.
β-Glucuronidase may contribute to the development of colon cancer. A reduction in the activity of this enzyme could inhibit the enterohepatic circulation of carcinogens, which is thought to reduce the risk of colon cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the β-glucuronidase inhibition activity of DOPA. Prior to heating, DOPA showed only a weak inhibitory effect on β-glucuronidase. After heating a DOPA solution at 100°C for 10 min, the heat-treated DOPA (hDOPA) exhibited 48.5% inhibition at 10 µM. We performed a kinetic study on β-glucuronidase inhibition by hDOPA using Lineweaver-Burk analysis. The kinetics profile suggests that hDOPA competitively inhibits β-glucuronidase.
The water-soluble carotenoid crocin is used to color foods. Crocin in foods is mixed with salivary nitrite in the oral cavity and is then mixed with gastric juice in the stomach, suggesting the occurrence of reactions between crocin and nitrite in the gastric lumen. Crocin reduced nitrite to nitric oxide (NO) under the conditions simulating the gastric lumen (pH 2.0). Starch suppressed the redox reaction, and this suppression was due to the formation of starch/crocin complexes. Based on these results, it is proposed that crocin transported to the intestine is increased through the formation of starch/crocin complexes.
Tocopherols and phytosterols were added to medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) to study their effect on color reversion of vegetable oils. Four samples with 0, 6,000, 10,000 and 14,000 mg/kg phytosterols were heated at 105°C for 12 h. No significant reduction of phytosterols and obvious color change were found in the four samples. Five samples with 0, 1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000 mg/kg tocopherols were also heated at 105°C for 12 h. About 2 − 5% tocopherols were absent after heating. Reduction of total tocopherol was found linearly related to color darkening. The most significant reduction is α-tocopherol. Reduction of α-tocopherol correlated more with color darkening than that of γ-tocopherol. The conclusion is phytosterol has no effect on color reversion of oils and reduction of α-tocopherol was attributed to be the most important cause of color reversion.
Grains of six varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) including Sahiwal-2002, Sadaf, EV-1098, EV-6098, FH-793 and Pak-Afgoyee, being cultivated in Pakistan, were analysed for their biochemical, phytochemical and antioxidant composition. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in these contents were observed among the varieties. FH-793 was found to be high in salt soluble proteins, tannins and saponins. Sahiwal-2000 and EV-1098 exhibited comparatively higher levels of sugars, crude oil, flavonoids, phenolic acids, antioxidants, 2, 2-Diphenyl 1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power; therefore these two varieties should attract the attention of the nutritionists.
Wheat starch (WS) and Turkish bean starch (TBS) blends were prepared in different proportions like 100WS, 10TBS/90WS, 30TBS/70WS, 50TBS/50WS and 100TBS. Starch blends and individual starches were studied for their pasting, thermal, textural and functional properties. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms of blends showed additive effect of both the starches. Gelatinization enthalpy of individual TBS was higher as compared to individual WS. In 50TBS/50WS blend, effect of TBS was higher as compared to WS. Amylose lipid complex was observed in individual WS and all blends while it was not present in individual TBS. Syneresis from starch gels increased with the increase in TBS level in blends. All the blends showed a linear trend regarding gel hardness values. The cohesiveness value of 50WS/50TBS blend was almost similar to that of 100WS. Our studies suggest that blending of WS with TBS in equal proportions can be useful in high temperature processing.
Increased protein intake frequently improves lipid profiles in humans and animals. To investigate the effects of collagen peptide ingestion on blood lipid profiles, 0.2 g/kg body weight collagen peptide was administered for 29 days to male Crlj:CD (SD) rats fed a high-lipid and high-sucrose diet, and their blood lipid levels were determined on days 1 and 28, and also on day 30 after overnight fasting. Food intake and body weight did not change with collagen peptide ingestion. Although triglycerides increased markedly with the high-lipid and high-sucrose diet, collagen peptide ingestion had no significant effect on triglyceride levels. Collagen peptide also had no effect on non-esterified fatty acid levels. In contrast, total cholesterol, particularly LDL, was significantly lower in rats given collagen peptide than in control rats on day 30 after overnight fasting. These results suggest that collagen peptide ingestion improves cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high-lipid and high-sucrose diet.
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of cinnamon essential oil (CEO) and rhubarb ethanol extract (REE) against 5 food-related microorganisms and to investigate effect on E. coli integrity. The main chemical components ( > 0.1%) of CEO and REE were analyzed by GC/MS. The major active constituents of CEO were cinnamaldehyde and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, and the major active constituents of REE were chrysophanic acid and physcion. The antimicrobial efficacy of combination of CEO and REE was investigated by analysis of the fractional inhibitory concentration index. The combination showed additive efficacy against all tested microorganisms. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscope observations and the K+ concentration change in broth confirmed the physical damage and considerable morphological alteration to the E. coli treated with CEO, REE and combination of them. Thus, our study demonstrated that CEO and REE can be considered potential alternatives to control pathogens and microbial spoilage issues.