The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor family. They are considered molecular targets for the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases and are involved in the control of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression. COX-2, the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, plays a key role in inflammation and circulatory homeostasis, and its expression is partly controlled by PPAR. We have identified several natural chemicals, such as resveratrol, that activate PPARs and suppress COX-2 expression. In this review, we provide an evaluation of food-derived functional ingredients that target PPARs and COX-2.
Glutathione is an effective antioxidant. This study aims to estimate the efficacy of glutathione as a browning inhibitor for use on the meat of Clanis bilineata larvae (MCBL). Enzymatic browning of MCBL treated with glutathione in combination with ascorbic acid (AA) was monitored during frozen storage of 6 months. 0.06% glutathione in combination with 0.05% AA inhibited the activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from MCBL by 97.1%. 0.05%AA showed a significant synergist effect with glutathione on browning inhibition (P < 0.05). Additionally, MCBL treated with glutathione in combination with AA had no browning formation and no oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids after 6 months of frozen storage compared with the control (P < 0.05). Results indicate that treatment of MCBL with glutathione in combination with AA is a promising way to preserve MCBL.
The effects of four hydrocolloids (guar, xanthan gum, carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)) in three concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1 % w/w flour basis), on Barbari (Iranian bread) was investigated. Farinograph parameters, physical properties (specific volume, oven spring, height to width ratio, crumb to crust ratio), and the moisture content of fresh bread were analyzed. CMC and HPMC had the most noticeable effect on dough rheological properties; leading to a more strengthened dough. The hydrocolloids also improved the bread’s physical properties. In addition, the best effect on moisture content was observed by 0.5% CMC, followed by 0.5% and 1% HPMC. Hydrocolloids did not unfavourably influence the sensory properties of bread. All sensory parameters were improved using hydrocolloids. Consequently, despite the improving effect of all hydrocolloids, cellulose derivatives could have better uses in bread-making processes.
The effect of transglutaminase (TG) on the yield, composition, proteolysis and functional properties of low-fat Cheddar cheese were investigated. By adding TG, the protein, fat recoveries and the yield of low-fat cheese were improved significantly. In addition, owing to the increase in moisture content, the degree of proteolysis of the TG-treated low-fat cheese was higher than that of untreated cheese during the first 15 days, and the hardness was also reduced significantly during early ripening. On the other hand, the additional covalent cross-linking catalyzed by TG had a slight adverse effect on the proteolysis during later ripening and resulted in a harder texture and lower meltability than the low-fat cheese without TG. In conclusion, TG is promising for increasing the yield and improving the texture properties of low-fat cheese, which makes it very beneficial for the cheese making.
Progressive freeze-concentration of 3 to 30% sucrose solutions were carried out using a small cylindrical apparatus. The solute concentration distribution in the ice phase was determined by cutting the ice formed into fractions and analyzing the solute concentration in the fractions. The solute concentration in the ice phase was found to increase as the concentration process progressed. From the solid phase analysis, the corresponding liquid phase concentration was estimated in the concentration process and an effective partition coefficient, K, was determined. K was also obtained from the concentration polarization theory. To this purpose, the limiting partition coefficient, K0, was obtained, then K was determined from the concentration polarization theory. K obtained by the two methods agreed well. K increased with an increase in solute concentration of sucrose, which corresponds to the higher incorporation rate of solute into the ice phase in progressive freeze-concentration.
The aim of this work was to predict mathematically the freezing time of white trout fillets (Cynoscion arenarius) and to evaluate the effect of frozen storage on textural properties. A horizontal plate freezer was used to −30°C and the process was stopped when the fillets reached −6°C. Then, the frozen fillets were stored for 8 weeks at −18°C and analyzed for textural studies each week. The experimental freezing time (44.56 min) was compared with the values calculated by Plank’s and Nagaoka equations (33.37 and 42.02 min, respectively). The average percentage error for Plank model prediction was 25.11% and with Nagaoka model was 5.7%. For textural results, it was found that hardness, adhesiveness and adhesive force increased constantly during the eight weeks. The prediction of the freezing time could be appropriate for use by plant operators because of their simplicity and satisfactory performance.
The physical properties of chickpeas (CP) (Cicer arietinum var. surutato) and Turkish dry beans (TB) (Phaseolus vulgaris var. pinto) starches, as affected by Abelmoschus esculentus extract (OE), were examined. The properties were examined by rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), Brookfield viscometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and texture analyzer. The extract (OE) was added at 5, 10, and 15% of the starch to develop dry or wet blends. The RVA revealed that the peak and final viscosity as well as the setback of both starches were reduced in the presence of OE. The higher peak temperature (DSC) of the blends indicates slower starch gelatinization. Brookfield profiles demonstrated increase in shear stress at higher shear rate confirming pseudoplasticity of the system (n < 1). Arrhenius type model showed that starch blends viscosities exhibited higher activation energy indicating temperature dependency. Generally, it can be concluded that OE has changed the properties of the starches, particularly, by decreasing viscosity, setback, and pseudoplasticity, gel hardness, and increasing syneresis of gels.
A rapid, non-destructive method, based on Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy for water and oil content determination of instant noodles was presented. A calibration set of 80 samples, a validation set of 40 samples and a prediction set of 10 samples of instant noodles were used. The diffuse reflection spectra of samples were measured by FT-NIR analyzer in the 1000 − 2500 nm spectral range. The optimal models for water and oil content were constructed by comparing different preprocessing method and partial least squares (PLS) factor number. Prediction results indicated good predictive ability of the developed models we set for water and oil content in instant noodles. The correlations between FT-NIR values and chemical values of the two indexes were 0.9912 and 0.9766, respectively. The study provided a rapid method for instant noodles quality control using FT-NIR spectra combine with the method developed in this paper.
With the aim of elucidating the hypotensive effects of Apios americana Medikus tuber, active ingredients with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were identified and their hypotensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. From a pepsin digest of A. americana showing strong activity, two ACE-inhibitory peptides were isolated and identified as YRLPNL and YQLP. Although the ACE-inhibitory activity of YQLP was weak, YRLPNL showed strong ACE-inhibitory activity (IC50 value 7.7 nM) equal to those of lisinopril and captopril. After a single oral administration of YRLPNL, SHR showed a significant decrease in blood pressure. These results suggest that YRLPNL, isolated from A. Americana, is a hypotensive peptide having ACE-inhibitory activity. This is the first report of a food peptide having ACE-inhibitory activity equal to that of pharmaceuticals.
This study aimed to characterize the seeds of oranges, varieties Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia, on the composition and physico-chemical properties of its oil through the determination of free fatty acids, peroxide value, refraction, iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, oxidative stability and fatty acid profile. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and differences between the average results were tested at 5% probability by Tukey test. The orange seed oils showed high levels of lipids, about 40%, and showed a low degree of degradation, when analyzing the free fatty acids and peroxide value. It was found through the fatty acid profile and refraction and iodine indexes seed oil, Pera-rio orange was the most unsaturated. The seed oil, Valencia orange had a higher oxidative stability in Rancimat at 100°C.
Active non-volatile taste components, including free amino acids, the flavor of the 5’-nucleotides, lactic acid, succinic acid and 4 kinds of inorganic ions (chloride, sodium, potassium, phosphate ions) of the viscera and the adductor muscles of oysters (Ostrea rivularis) were analyzed. Additionally, a contrast experiment was conducted to highlight the difference in tastes between adductor muscle extracts and viscera extracts. Taste activity values (TAVs) and equivalent umami concentration (EUC) were calculated for samples of the two tissues. Our results showed that the total amount of free amino acid in the adductor muscle was about 5 times as that in the viscera; and the TAVs of five free amino acids in the muscle exceeded 1, while TAVs of all amino acids found in the viscera were below 1. Additionally, the EUC of the adductor muscle was about 35 times as that of the viscera. The TAVs of succinic acid were above 1 in both tissues. Cl− contents in the muscle and the viscera were approximately equal, but the contents of the other three inorganic ions we tested were different. Furthermore, the results of sensory tests showed that the adductor muscle was preferred to the viscera. In conclusion, the taste of the adductor muscle was found to be far more intense and preferable to that of the viscera.
This research investigated the possibility of producing zero-trans packet margarines from virgin coconut oil (VCO). VCO was mixed with palm stearin (PS) and/or palm oil (PO) in six weight proportions in order to prepare feedstocks for the production of experimental margarines. The fat blends included two binary blends of PS/VCO (40:60 and 30:70) and four ternary blends of PS/VCO/PO (30:40:30, 20:40:40, 30:50:20 and 20:50:30). The six fat blends and the experimental margarines produced from the blends were characterized and compared with commercial trans- (CTM) and zero-trans (CZTM) margarines in terms of microstructure, polymorphism, solid fat content, melting and crystallization behavior, textural and sensory properties. It was found that the binary fat blend which contained 30% PS and 70% VCO was the most suitable blend to be used as feedstock for the production of zero-trans packet margarine. The blend exhibited a tendency to crystallize into β’ structure with a good cooling effect and a low SFC value at body temperature, indicating that it would not cause waxy mouthfeel when consumed. In addition, the margarine produced from the blend demonstrated good consistency with a hardness characteristic close to that of a commercial trans-packet margarine and also received the highest score for overall acceptability.
Acanthopanax sessiliflorus has been used as traditional medicine in many diseases. The extracts from Acanthopanax sessiliflorus leaves were examined for their anti-oxidant activity in vivo. Resistance to oxidative stress was significantly increased by Acanthopanax sessiliflorus extracts. Since increased resistance to oxidative stress is commonly positively correlated with lifespan extension, we determined the effect of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus on lifespan of C. elegans. Both mean and maximum lifespan were markedly increased by Acanthopanax sessiliflorus extracts. In addition, the treatment of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus enhanced the survival of worms under heat stress. However, the reduced fertility or delayed reproduction period frequently accompanied with increased lifespan were not observed in Acanthopanax sessiliflorus-treated animals. These findings suggest that Acanthopanax sessiliflorus leaves can confer longevity phenotype without reduced fertility, possibly through their anti-oxidant activity.
The aim of this study was to determine and compare differences in sensory, chemical and microbiological post-mortem changes between wild and farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Lipid content was higher (5.77%) in wild fish than cultured fish (3.02%). Wild fish were very rich in n-3 fatty acids. Although wild fish were preferred to cultured fish due to the taste and flavour, shelf life of both wild and cultured rainbow trout was 14 days with demerit scores of 16 and 14, respectively. Chemical analyses showed that lipid oxidation and hydrolysis developed at a higher rate in wild rainbow trout. Histamine was not detected in any samples throughout the storage period apart from wild rainbow trout at 7 days of storage. Initial total viable counts (TVC) of fish was 3.59 log CFU/g for cultured rainbow trout and 3.36 log CFU/g for wild rainbow trout, which showed high quality of fish. Coliform and E. coli were not detected for both groups. When fish were unacceptable at the days of 14, TVC content was 6.16 log CFU/g for wild rainbow trout and 6.35 log CFU/g for cultured rainbow trout.
Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside present in many foods, is a modulator in the central nervous system. Uridine behaves as an anticonvulsant in a number of seizure models and also promotes sleep. In this study, we exposed mice to social isolation stress for 4 weeks and then investigated the effects of uridine on the changes induced by stress. Social isolation stress increased locomotor activity in an open field. This increase in locomotor activity was suppressed by uridine. Moreover, uridine prevented social isolation stress-induced aggressive behavior. To investigate how uridine administration modifies neurotransmitters, we estimated the concentration and release of neurotransmitters in the prefrontal cortex. Uridine modulated serotonin release. Our results suggest that uridine attenuates the behavioral changes due to social isolation stress in mice.
This study investigated the effects of rice-related products (rice flour, rice bran, and rice starch) on the textural properties and the color of fish meat gels derived from walleye pollock, Theragra chalcagramma. The addition of up to 3% rice flour to fish meat gel improved the textural properties, as did rice starch. Gel samples made with rice flour and rice starch had almost the same lightness and whiteness with the same addition level. Furthermore, the addition of rice bran and rice flour contributed to the suppression of fish meat gel softening (the modori phenomenon).
Green tea is known for its high content of functional catechins and is commonly consumed for its health-promoting effects. However, green tea catechins are highly bitter and astringent, and thus the development of products that can be consumed regularly is necessary for their efficient, routine intake. The aim of this study was to use sub-critical water extraction (SWE) to produce a green tea extract both less bitter and less astringent than typical green tea. Results from chemical evaluation using a taste sensor analyzer indicated that SWE reduced bitterness, astringency and unpleasant taste while it retained the original fragrance in the green tea extract. Furthermore, the SWE-produced extract had higher amounts of arginine and water-soluble pectin, which are thought to mask the bitterness and astringency of green tea.
It is widely believed that attached diatoms are the best food source for freshwater ayu Plecoglossus altivelis (Temminck et Schlegel) in Japan. However, sensory testing by a panel consisting of 40 untrained tasters and analyses of gut content showed that there was no significant correlation between preference scores for fish taste and the dominance of diatoms in the algal assemblages fed upon by ayu in the Yahagi River, Aichi Prefecture, Central Japan. Ayu that fed on the filamentous blue-green algae Homeothrix varians was evaluated higher for aroma and fat content than those that fed on diatoms. Ayu feeding on diatoms were collected in the lower reaches of the Yahagi River which receive domestic sewage. In the absence of more detailed analyses, exposure to sewage is considered to confer a characteristic aroma on Ayu.
The neuroprotective effect of intravitreally injected β-1,3-glucan was examined in a rat model of transient retinal ischemia. Retinal function and morphology were assessed in both control rats (Intact), and in rats administered β-1,3-glucan after ischemic damage induced by elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) to 130 mmHg for 45 min. β-1,3-Glucan was intravitreally injected into male SD rats, with a final vitreal concentration of 5 µg/eye. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinography, and retinal morphology was assessed by light microscopy and TUNEL assay (n = 3 for Intact, and n = 6 for β-1,3-glucan and Vehicle). Morphometric analysis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the inner plexiform layer (IPL) showed decreased RGC number and thinner IPL in the eyes of Intact rats compared with those injected with β-1,3-glucan. TUNEL assay results showed that the retinas of eyes injected with β-1,3-glucan were similar to those of Intact eyes (the left eyes of the SD rats). However, the retinas of Vehicle eyes differed in RGC and IPL layer from β-1,3-glucan injected eyes after transient retinal ischemia. Electroretinograms (ERGs) showed that the β-1,3-glucan-administered rats had significantly more protective b-wave amplitudes compared with the Vehicle group. β-1,3-Glucan exhibits a neuroprotective effect in a transient retinal ischemia model of retinal injury in rats.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a member of the Lamiaceae family that is commonly used in herbal teas. Plants from the Lamiaceae family have numerous peltate glandular trichomes (PGTs). These PGTs contain essential oils, which influence the perception of rosemary aroma. In the present study, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to evaluate the chemical quantities of 10 active odor compounds from rosemary, i.e., camphene, 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, borneol, verbenone, carvone, geraniol, bornyl acetate and alpha-pinene. In addition, we used X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) to examine the tissue structure of PGTs from the leaves and stems of rosemary plants. We confirmed that PGTs included 3 types of essential oil. Moreover, we clearly demonstrated that individual PGTs have different structures, filled with different types of essential oil. Our findings suggest that combined use of X-ray CT and GC-MS is an effective means of evaluating the qualities of rosemary PGTs and essential oil.
Carrots, like most other vegetables, are classified into fresh or processing varieties in the food industry. To describe differences in volatile profiles and identify important volatiles among the carrot varieties of each type, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the composition of individual volatiles in 12 carrot varieties, including 7 Kuroda (fresh) and 5 Flakee (processing) types. Fifty-four volatiles were identified and quantified. β-Myrcene, terpinolene, sabinene and 1,3,8-p-menthatriene were detected as odor-active volatiles by GC-olfactometry. PCA distinguished Kuroda from Flakee by PC1. β-Myrcene and sabinene also had high PCA loading values, and were shown to play an important role in the characteristics of Flakee. On the other hand, thymol methyl ether and caryophyllenes, especially caryophyllene oxide, were representative volatiles in Kuroda. Thus, these volatiles might be useful as novel molecular markers in the development of new, high-quality carrots.
The gene, designated AsamyR, encoding a transcriptional activator involved in amylolytic gene expression was isolated from a shoyu koji mold, Aspergillus sojae KBN1340, and characterized. The structural gene comprised 1,951 bp with 2 introns. AsAmyR consisted of 595 amino acid residues possessing a high degree of sequence identity with other Aspergillus AmyRs. The AsamyR gene disruptant showed significantly restricted growth on starch agar plates and produced no detectable α-amylase production in SP medium. The multicopy AsamyR strain exhibited approximately two-fold higher amylase activity when compared to that of the control strain, but the increased rate of the amylase activity was not as high as the copy number of the integrated AsamyR gene.
The free radical theory of aging believes that free radicals are involved in the changes in cellular metabolism that lead to a time-dependent functional decline in the living organism. Antioxidant or free radical scavengers may retard the aging process. In the current study, we explored the anti-aging activity by lycopene in Drosophila melanogaster. The results from this study showed that lycopene mycelium powder have the ability to prolong the longevity of Drosophila melanogaster, enhanced its reproductivity and sexual capacity, had the ability to increase SOD level and decrease MDA level. From the above finding in the study, we concluded that lycopene can reduce the propagation of free radical reactions and limit the formation of new free radicals, therefore build a defense to protect the organism from the oxidative stress and slow the aging process.
Although Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) is useful for most solid foods, the misuse of TPA parameters for liquid foods has led to misunderstandings and confusion. Here, we warn of the risk of misuse of TPA parameters for liquid foods.