This work aimed to study the features of Crioulo Lageano beef cattle and compare them with those of the Nellore, the main commercial breed of Brazil. Twelve cattle each of the Nellore and Crioulo Lageano were evaluated for carcass characteristics, muscle:carcass ratio and chemical composition of commercial cuts: topside, rum cap, eye round, sirloin, tenderloin and rib eye. In this study, the meat of Crioulo Lageano exhibited a higher marbling score than that of Nellore. Rib eye and sirloin cuts of Crioulo Lageano stood out due to their weight and intramuscular fat content. The following variables explained 69.4% of the characteristics of the Crioulo Lageano beef as determined by principal components analysis (PCA): hot carcass weight, hindquarter, forequarter, pistola, topside, rum cap, eye round, sirloin, tenderloin, rib eye and dressing. The muscle:carcass ratio and PCA values demonstrated the adaptability of the Crioulo Lageano cattle to the southern Santa Catarina Plateau.
The aim of this study was to determine if there is any correlation between moisture and fat content and such attributes estimated by the computer vision system (CVS) as white and red areas (%), values of colour coordinates in RGB and CIELAB colour systems, in the batters composed of porcine meat and fat (Experiment 1) or meat, fat and water (Experiment 2). The fat content (the Soxhlet method) was most highly correlated with the white fields’ area (r = 0.98, 0.85 and 0.85 for data obtained from Exp. 1, Exp. 2, and both, respectively). Also, the moisture content (the oven drying method) showed the strongest correlation with the area of white fields (r = −0.97, −0.85, −0.83, for Exp. 1, Exp. 2, and both, respectively). Thus, for estimation of fat and moisture content in meat batters the most useful CVS attribute is area of white fields.
Polyols are also important functional ingredients usually behave as humectants in different food products. Frozen dough bakery products face a challenge of relatively short shelf life with decreasing quality characteristics with the increasing frozen storage periods of time. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different levels of Polyols on the rheological and sensory parameters of frozen dough Pizza during different storage interval of time. Different Polyols levels (sorbitol and mannitol) were studied on flour basis on the rheological properties of commercial wheat flour and their effect on the organoleptic paramters in frozen dough pizza (FDP) were monitored after 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of frozen storage. It was observed that water absorption, arrival time, departure time, peak time and tolerance index was higher in flours containing 2% addition of polyols (sorbitol and mannitol) treatments in the commercial wheat flours for the empirical rheological measurements. Addition of sorbitol and mannitol at the level of 2% on flour weight basis improved the quality of frozen dough pizza while sensory parameters of frozen dough pizza effected significantly during the storage periods.
Defatted rice bran was treated at 230℃ for 5 min with distilled water or 40% (v/v) acetone to produce the corresponding extracts. Acetone-soluble substances were fractionated from the extracts. The antioxidative activities against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals, and the hypochlorite and peroxynitrite ions of the extracts and acetone-soluble substances were examined, and the activities were comprehensively characterized using the 5-axe cobweb chart. The 40% acetone extract exhibited higher activity than the water extract. Fractionation of acetone-soluble substances from extracts increased activity. The acetone-soluble substances from the extract with 40% acetone exhibited the highest activity among the extracts and acetone-soluble substances.
The function of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on biogenic amines (BAs) accumulation by gram negative and positive food-borne pathogens (FBP) was investigated in arginine decarboxylase broth (ADB). Main amines produced by gram negative and positive bacteria were putrescine (PUT), spermidine, agmatine (AGM) and 2-phenylethylamine in ADB. There were not significant differences in BAs production between gram negative and gram positive bacteria (p > 0.05), except for histamine and trimethylamine. The function of LAB strains on ammonia and BAs production by gram negative and gram positive FBP was strain dependent. The all used bacteria appeared to convert arginine into PUT through AGM. LAB strains generally seemed to stimulate amine that generated by FBP. The highest stimulation effect on PUT production was found for Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of Lb. plantarum (about 8 fold higher). Consequently, the function of LAB strains on ammonia (AMN) and BAs production by gram negative and positive FBP varied depending on strains although LAB used with some pathogens had stimulation effect on AMN and BAs.
Wheat, the main ingredient of the leavened flat bread (naan) has low quality protein because it is deficient in certain essential amino acids. In countries like Pakistan wheat, the main source of protein for general masses needs selection/supplementation with some good protein source. Various levels (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%) of chickpea flour and glycerol monostearate (GMS) emulsifier (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0%) were therefore added to the flours of two Pakistani wheat varieties (LU-26 and 31) for naan production and quality improvement respectively on storage (0, 12 and 24 h). The addition of chickpea flour proportionately affected the proximate composition of the composite flours and sensory characteristics of the naans. Wheat variety LU-26 was ranked highest at 10% addition of chickpea flour and 0 h storage. With 15% supplementation, the nutrition of the naan was enhanced but its textural quality deteriorated which was improved adding 0.4% GMS.
Supercritical CO2 extract from fruits of Citrus hassaku Hort ex Tanaka, Citrus iyo Hort. ex Tanaka, and Citrus grandis Osbeck, locally known as phalsak, yeagam, and dangyuja, respectively, in Korea, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 70, 79, and 76 compounds were identified in fruits of phalsak, yeagam, and dangyuja respectively. (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid was the major compound in phalsak, whereas limonene prevailed among the others. α-Terpineol, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, hexadecanoic acid, pentacosane, stigmasterol, and γ-sitosterol were prominent in all species. Antiproliferative activity of the fruit extract was revealed through the colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human glioblastoma U373MG, SNU-16 gastric cancer cells, HeLa cervix adenocarcinoma cells and AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells. Although all tested fruit extracts exhibited antiproliferative effects toward cancer cells, different cell lines varied in their sensitivity to the same plant fruit extract.
To develop new functional foods for the prevention of atherosclerosis, we evaluated the cholesterol-lowering effects of several strains of Lactobacillus (L.) brevis. These strains included the γ-amino butyric acid-producing strains L. brevis 119-2 and L. brevis 119-6, isolated from turnip “tsuda kabu” and pickled turnip “tsuda kabu zuke”, respectively. To evaluate the cholesterol-lowering effects of L. brevisin vitro and to examine potential mechanisms of this property, we evaluated changes in levels of cholesterol, sodium taurocholate, and cholic acid in growth medium containing cholesterol and sodium taurocholate. Moreover, to assess the potential of L. brevis 119-2 and L. brevis 119-6 for probiotic use, we examined the tolerance of L. brevis to artificial digestive fluid and its adherence to epithelial cells. Our results indicate that L. brevis 119-2 incorporates cholesterol from the medium into the cell, and that L. brevis 119-2 and L. brevis 119-6 are probiotic bacteria. Therefore, we propose that viable cells of L. brevis 119-2 can reach the small intestine, where they can inhibit intestinal absorption of cholesterol in vivo by incorporation of cholesterol into the cell.
Seasonal variations in the taste aspects and free amino acid composition of black sea urchin (Diadema setosum) gonad caught offshore Nagasaki were investigated to utilize it as a foodstuff. Biological data, proximate composition and free amino acid composition of the gonad were analyzed throughout the year. The free amino acid composition of black sea urchin gonad caught in June showed the highest glycine and alanine levels. Sensory evaluation of artificial extracts suggested that the taste of black sea urchin gonad caught in June was the most preferable and did not significantly differ from that of the highly palatable northern sea urchin. These findings suggest that the taste aspects of sea urchin exhibit seasonal variation. Furthermore, black sea urchin can be utilized as a foodstuff, and its palatability is seasonally dependent.
Soybean curd (Tofu) is a popular food for many people, especially those with health concerns. The objective of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the contamination rate and types of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria in packaged and unpackaged tofu sold in Thai markets. A total of 133 tofu samples (59 packaged tofu samples and 74 unpackaged tofu samples) were collected from open markets and supermarkets in Thailand. The predominantly identified Gram-negative bacteria were coliforms (67% in tested samples), Pseudomonas spp. (56%) and Escherichia coli (28%) and the predominantly identified Gram-positive bacteria were Enterococcus spp. (77%), lactic acid bacteria (68%), Bacillus cereus (41%) and Staphylococcus spp. (26%). No Listeria spp. were found in any of the tofu samples. The contamination rates of E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus spp. in unpackaged tofu were significantly higher than those in packaged tofu (P < 0.05). Three kinds of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, Cronobacter sakazakii, Salmonella spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica (serotype 0:5), were found only in unpackaged tofu samples. Of 54 B. cereus isolates, four isolates from three unpackaged tofu samples and one packaged tofu sample were found to produce diarrheal enterotoxin. The most common Enterococcus spp. isolates were Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. These results suggested that the improvement of hygienic practices might be required for reducing the risk of food poisoning and food spoilage of tofu in Thailand.
The objective of this investigation was to assess the antihyperglycemic effects of an extract of decaffeinated green coffee beans (EDGCB). Despite the potential properties attributed to this compound, little is known about its action in vivo. In rats, EDGCB significantly decreased postprandial blood glucose levels when administered with each of the 4 carbohydrate types (sucrose, maltose, glucose, and soluble starch). An optimum effect was observed when EDGCB was administered at the beginning of the carbohydrate challenge. In the clinical trial, plasma glucose levels were significantly reduced by administering doses of 100 and 300 mg EDGCB after ingestion of 200 g carbohydrate, particularly in subjects with a high glycemic response. No significant differences were observed in plasma insulin profiles, however, over the course of the experiment.
In this study, Pediococcus ethanolidurans A4-27 was isolated from Japanese pickles (nuka-zuke). The bacteria produce high molecular weight amylase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram activity staining showed a single band at around 150 kDa. The enzyme was purified by disc preparative native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and ion chromatograph analysis of reaction products of P. ethanolidurans amylase on starch showed that glucose and maltose are the main final products. The appearance of maltose and glucose as major hydrolysis products suggests that the amylase produced by this organism is of α-type. Optimal temperature and pH for the enzyme activity were 60℃ and pH 4.0 − 6.0, respectively. Enzyme activity was not affected by the presence of 10 mM calcium chloride (Ca2+) or the presence of 1000 mM and 2000 mM NaCl. These results indicate that the amylase from P. ethanolidurans is a useful enzyme for fermentation of rice bran-bed (nuka-doko) containing more than 15% NaCl.
Tomatoes have recently been implicated as an important vehicle in outbreaks of produce-associated salmonellosis. Traceback reports suggested that pre-harvest contamination of Salmonella enterica might be the main reason for these outbreaks; however, the site of pathogen attachment remains unclear. Therefore, it is important to investigate the mechanisms of Salmonella contamination of fresh produce. To trace the presence of Salmonella in soil and plants, Salmonella Enteritidis transformed with a pEGFP plasmid vector (S. Enteritidis-EGFP) was used. Soil was artificially contaminated with S. Enteritidis-EGFP at 104, 106 or 108 CFU/g, followed by cultivation of tomato plants in the contaminated soil. Samples of the soil and each organ of the tomato (fruit, stems/leaves, and root) were assayed for Salmonella by plating onto Tryptic Soy Agar and using the MPN method. Salmonella levels in the soil gradually decreased over time, and soil persistence was dependent on the initial inoculation level. Salmonella levels were below the detection limit (< 100 CFU/g) in fruits and stems/leaves, regardless of the level of soil contamination. Moreover, S. Enteritidis-EGFP was not detected in the tomato fruits after root injury. These results indicate that the internalization of Salmonella in tomato fruits might not occur after cultivation in contaminated soil.
In this study, biofilm formation of Pseudomonas putida at a constant temperature of 5℃, 10℃, 20℃ or 30℃ under rich and poor nutrient conditions was investigated. For all temperature conditions, P. putida initially grew and formed biofilm. Subsequently, under the rich nutrient condition, the biofilm detached after it reached maturity at a high temperature, but those at a low temperature remained attached. In contrast, under the poor nutrient condition, biofilm detachment occurred regardless of the temperature condition; thus, lack of nutrients may cause biofilm detachment. Therefore, aside from cleaning blots and strict maintenance of a low temperature during the distribution of agricultural produce, attention must be paid to biofilm detachment as it can lead to an increased risk of bacterial contamination and food poisoning.
The effects of single administration of Lactobacillus plantarum No. 14 (LP14) on human body temperature and factors related to sympathetic nerves were measured in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. LP14 significantly increased chest temperature (P < 0.05). The maximum difference in temperature between LP14 and placebo was 0.24 ± 0.24℃. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly, and arousal scores tended to increase in the LP14 group. The results of the Uchida-Kraepelin test indicated that LP14 elevated task performance. Our results demonstrated that LP14 induced thermogenesis in humans. We also examined the activity of the sympathetic nerves (SNA) innervating brown adipose tissue (BAT) in rats. The activity of BAT-SNA was significantly enhanced in the LP14 group. As LP14 changed factors associated with sympathetic nerves in humans and elevated sympathetic nerve activity in rats, sympathetic nerve activation appears to participate in thermogenesis elicited by LP14.
Lipids extracted from two cultivars of Jack bean (Canavalia gladiata DC.) were classified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) into nine subfractions. The major lipid components were triacylglycerols (TAG: 43.8 − 45.7%) and phospholipids (PL: 46.7 − 47.0%). Other lipids were present at a concentration of 0.3 − 2.7%. The molecular species and FA distributions of TAG, isolated from the total lipids in the beans, were analyzed by a combination of AgNO3-TLC and gas chromatography (GC). Eighteen TAG molecular species were detected in the beans. The dominant TAG species were M3 (32.5 − 33.0%), followed by S2M (5.4 − 5.5%), SM2 (7.6 − 7.7%), S2D (9.0 − 9.1%), SMD (5.3 − 5.4%), S2T (6.3 − 6.4%), M2D (5.3 − 5.6%), MD2 (6.5 − 6.7%), SDT (5.2 − 5.3%) and M2T (3.8 − 3.9%), where S, M, D, and T denote saturated FA, monoene, diene, and triene, respectively. The results show that the lipid classes, FA distributions and TAG molecular species of Jack bean are not dependent on the cultivar.
The rhamnogalacturonan lyase A gene, designated AsrglA, was isolated from a shoyu koji mold, Aspergillus sojae KBN1340, and characterized. The structural gene comprised 2,245 bp with 11 introns. The open reading frame encoded a 528-residue protein with a signal peptide of 20 residues. AsrglA shared a high degree of sequence identity with Aspergillus oryzae rhamnogalacturonate lyase A and Aspergillus flavus rhamnogalacturonase B. Utilizing the promoter of the A. oryzae taaG2 gene, AsRglA was successfully expressed in A. oryzae and secreted into the culture medium. AsRglA had a molecular mass of 55.0 kDa, a pH optimum of 4.5, and a temperature optimum of 50℃.
To evaluate the effect of high-pressure treatment on thermal inactivation of proteases, two mesophilic model proteases, trypsin and Marugoto E, that showed pressure-tolerance against an isobaric-isothermal treatment at 300 MPa and 37℃ were determined for the kinetics of thermal inactivation at appropriate time intervals for 1 h at 300 MPa and ambient pressure in 0.5 and 2.5 mg/mL concentrations, respectively. At all heating temperatures and time of heat-treatment, the residual activities of trypsin and Marugoto E solutions that were heat-treated at high pressure were significantly higher than those of the same solutions that were heat-treated at ambient pressure. First-order reaction rate constants for thermal inactivation of the enzymes at high pressure were significantly smaller than those at ambient pressure, which led to considerable decreases in activation energies of the enzyme reactions.
The cellular effects of 1-[5-(Hydroxymethyl)furan-2-yl]-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-carboxylic acid (Flazin) were examined. The Flazin content of Koikuchi and Tamari soy sauce was 65.1 μg/mL and 232.0 μg/mL, respectively. Flazin strongly inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells (IC50 = 20.0 μg/mL; 64.9 μM), although it only weakly inhibited HeLa and VSMC cells. DNA fragmentation results from a TUNEL assay suggest that apoptotic activity induced by Flazin is involved in the inhibition of HL-60 cell proliferation.