In this study, the shear and heat milling machine (SHMM), which was developed to produce amorphous rice flour, was applied to indica and japonica rice varieties. The grain shape of indica rice differs from that of japonica rice. We examined the effect of shape differences of rice grains on amorphization by SHMM. Pre-crushed samples were also used alongside the rice grain samples to control for differences in grain shape between indica and japonica rice varieties. Rice flour was produced from indica and japonica rices, and the effect of milling temperature at 80, 100, 120, and 140 °C on amorphization was examined. Crystallinity, moisture content, and particle size distribution were compared between the rice varieties. The effect of milling temperature on indica rice was qualitatively similar to that of japonica rice. The longer grain shape of indica had a negative effect on amorphization by SHMM.
A multi-phase lipid particle, a novel iron carrier, was prepared using a mixture of wax (derived from rice bran) and coconut oil. A high shear homogenization method was employed for particle processing. The main body of the prepared particle consisted of a waxy matrix containing nanostructured oil phases. When these particles were dispersed in an aqueous solution with lipase, the oil phases were digested and free fatty acids were released. Water droplets containing dissolved ferric ammonium sulfate were emulsified in coconut oil, and this W/O emulsion was used in particle preparation. This particle was designed for a triggered release of ferric ions due to the action of a digestive enzyme. We successfully demonstrated the preparation of the multi-phase lipid particle ranging in size from 10–160 μm and the lipase-induced release of ferric ions.
Six types of wheat flour with different degrees of damaged starch were used to prepare dough by adding 3.0 times the amount of water to that of flour on a weight basis. The amount of maltose formed during rest at 60 °C increased sharply at the early stage of rest and then asymptotically approached a constant value, M∞. The initial amount of maltose M0 was proportional to the degree of damaged starch, but M∞ was independent of the degree of damaged starch, 0.291 ± 0.015 g maltose/g flour (mean ± S.D.). The possible amount of maltose to be formed, M∞−M, was normalized by the difference between M∞ and M0, (M∞−M)/(M∞−M0), which could be expressed by the Weibull equation as a function of the resting time. Both the rate constant k and the shape coefficient n did not depend on the degree of damaged starch; k = 1.19 ± 0.16 h−1 and n = 0.601 ± 0.091, respectively.
Citrus kawachiensis peel (PCK), a new functional food material, may prolong the healthy life expectancy of aging populations. Tableting PCK could facilitate its worldwide distribution and consumption. A PCK dosage form that is easy to swallow should be prepared for ease of use by the elderly. We investigated the fabrication of orally disintegrating (OD) tablets with the required commercial strength and disintegration time. We formulated OD tablets comprising PCK powder, crospovidone, vinylpyrrolidone vinyl acetate copolymer, light anhydrous silicic acid, D-mannitol, and magnesium stearate. The tablets were prepared using a rotary tableting press. Tableting was optimized by setting the target hardness to 30−50 N and target disintegration time to ≤ 2 min. When tableting was performed at a compression pressure of 7.5 kN, the hardness was 40 N and disintegration time was 1.5 min. The OD tablet containing a high proportion of PCK possessed the properties preferred and required for commercial products.
We determined the foliage yield, polyphenol content, and polyphenol yield of weekly greenhouse-cultivated major varieties of sweet potato with the aim to utilize the foliage as a polyphenol source. The two-year study was conducted using five varieties from May to November 2012, Kokei No. 14, Koganesengan, Murasakimasari, Tamaakane, and Suioh, and three varieties from May to October 2014, Kokei No. 14, Koganesengan, and Beniharuka. The foliage yield of Koganesengan and Beniharuka in 2014 was significantly higher than other varieties. The foliage polyphenol content was significantly higher in Koganesengan in both years compared to others. The foliage polyphenol yield of Koganesengan and Beniharuka in 2014 was significantly higher than others. Koganesengan is a variety whose leaves represent a major portion of the total foliage; and the highest polyphenol content was in its leaves. Therefore, Koganesengan has the potential to be an efficient source of polyphenol. Our study provides basic data for the stable use of sweet potato foliage as a polyphenol-rich material.
Flavor is one of the most important characteristics and qualities of wines and fruit wines. In this study, HS-GC-IMS combined with the analytical method of principal component analysis (PCA) were used to inquire the volatile compounds in cherry wine during fermentation and aging in bottle. The fingerprints of flavor substances were established by the topographic plots, and identified 36 signal peaks that corresponded to 29 compounds. The volatile compounds were mainly esters, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones. Aldehydes were the main volatile compounds of cherry juice. Due to the metabolism of yeast, there was significantly increase in volatile compounds during fermentation. After the fermentation, cherry wine was stored in bottles for wine age. The volatile compounds changed little, and the flavor became more ethereal during aging in bottle. Through the evaluation, a spontaneous malolactic fermentation (MLF) happened during aging in bottle within two years, bringing about quality stability, deacidifying and sensory promotion of the cherry wine.
We investigated the effect of multi cycle heating-cooling treatment (HCT) (1, 2, and 3 cycles at 85, 95, and 105 °C) on the physical properties (color, pasting, and crystallinity) and morphological properties of sweet potato flour (SPF). The results showed that the lightness, pasting viscosity, and relative crystallinity of SPF decreased gradually as the heating temperature and numbers of cycles were increased. No significant differences on the crystalline pattern of native and HCT samples were observed. The granule surface of HCT samples exhibited cracking.
β-Glucanase-treated Candida utilis (GT) has the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease by suppressing elevated postprandial serum triglyceride levels. To clarify the mechanism, in this study, we investigated the effects of GT on lipid digestion. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of pancreatic lipase and the binding ability of bile acid, various yeast samples were prepared with or without β-glucanase treatment, by two-step in vitro digestion, and by water-soluble/insoluble fractionation. The insoluble fraction of GT displayed lipase inhibition and bile acid-binding effects after in vitro digestion, and insoluble fibers and resistant proteins or peptides were thought to be the components involved. The soluble fraction of GT showed slight effects.
Oil bodies (OBs) are lipid-storing organelles of soybean seeds and the source of substrates for the enzymatic oxidation reaction of soymilk flavour formation. However, the triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the OBs are surrounded by a membrane composed of phospholipids embedded with integral oleosins to prevent them from being hydrolyzed by lipase. Therefore, the specific reaction process of the OBs in the soymilk flavour formation process becomes complicated and is not well understood. In this study, the optimal substrate, OBs, were extracted by sucrose and washed with water at pH 11.0. The oxidation products (i.e., lipid hydroperoxides, and volatile flavour compounds) of the reaction systems, with OBs as substrate, showed that phospholipase A2 (PLA2) can directly hydrolyze external phospholipids (PLs) of OBs, and pancreatic lipase can hydrolyze the internal TAGs of OBs only after oleosins or PLs are hydrolyzed. Phospholipase D (PLD) cannot hydrolyze PLs of OBs. These findings are of great significance for understanding the mechanism of flavour formation in soymilk and further improving the flavour of soymilk.
Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an essential nutrient for humans, but its accumulation in the body is often problematic. Although it has been reported that the ingestion of apples increases AsA in the body, the details remain unknown. If true, it would decrease AsA deficiency in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of apple juice intake on the absorption and accumulation of AsA in the body of osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats, a mutant strain of Wistar rats. These model animals that lack AsA biosynthetic capacity were fed a mixture of an AsA solution and apple juice. We examined the AsA concentration in plasma, urine, and the mucosa of the small intestine. We observed that apple juice intake increased the amount of AsA in rats. This mechanism seems to be related to absorption from the small intestine. This study may contribute to research on enhancing AsA absorption efficiency.
To construct a predictive growth model of Listeria monocytogenes in ground pork, growth data were collected by real-time PCR and Listeria selective agar according to Ottaviani and Agosti (ALOA). Most probable number (MPN) was used to estimate viable numbers of L. monocytogenes at the beginning, middle, and end of the incubation period. Growth curves obtained from this study were fitted to the Baranyi and Roberts model to obtain growth parameters. Furthermore, the theoretical minimum temperature of growth was estimated by Ratkowsky's model. L. monocytogenes growth rates estimated from ALOA data were lower than those estimated by real-time PCR. Moreover, cell concentrations at all incubation temperatures were underestimated and lag phase duration at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) was overestimated by ALOA. However, the estimation from MPN more closely resembled the real-time PCR quantification results. Thus, the direct plate count tends to result in fail-dangerous prediction for bacterial risk from the model.
Garlic has unique aroma and functional components, exhibits anti-platelet aggregation activity, anti-allergic effects of ajoene, and so on, and is indispensable for many tasty dishes. To understand the characteristic metabolites, comprehensive metabolomic analysis of water-soluble components from garlic and black garlic (Kinkyou, Taisou, and Katei lines and Fukuchi White cultivar) was carried out using GC/MS. Kinkyou, which is cultivated as a new line in Kagawa, Japan, was assessed for physiologically important components in comparison with 3 popular garlic types. The loading values of principal component analysis of the characteristics of Kinkyou were mainly attributed to glutamic acid, threonine, cycloalliin, and so on. The amount of cycloalliin as a typical functional component of Kinkyou was determined to be about 327 mg/100 g dry wt. by HPLC analysis (2-fold that of the other 3 garlic). Additionally, the amount of cycloalliin in Kinkyou black garlic after processing was increased to 420 mg/100 g dry wt.
Abstract: A precise analysis method using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to detect seven furfural compounds in milk powder, including furfural, 2-acetylfuran, 5-methyl-2-furfural, 1-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)ethanone, 2(5H)-furanone, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural and furfuryl alcohol. Applying QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction methodology, the detection condition for all compounds was optimized to obtain good linearity between 0.001–2 mg/kg with correlation coefficients (R2) above 0.9990. The recoveries for the seven furfurals from milk powder samples are 92.06–106.19 %, with intra-day relative standard deviation ranging from 0.01 % to 3.32 % and inter-day relative standard deviation from 0.09 % to 1.58 %. The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.0003–0.001 mg/kg and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.001–0.003 mg/kg. A total of 34 real samples were analyzed to estimate the reliability and practicality of the developed method. The results obtained in the samples studied showed that galacto-oligosaccharide and fructose evidently increased the content of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, and the levels of 2(5H)-furanone was positively connected to the proportion of carbohydrate, in milk powders.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic, remains infectious for hours to days on surfaces. As SARS-CoV-2 continues to infect millions of people worldwide, it is imperative that safe and effective disinfecting agents are identified to help prevent its spread. We found that white distilled vinegar and 5%, 6% acetic acid exhibited a virucidal effect against SARS-CoV-2 within a short period of contact. However, grain vinegar (4% acetic acid concentration) did not show the effect over the same contact time. The addition of 0.01% ethyl acetate enhanced the virucidal effect of the 4% acetic acid. This study is the first to indicate the virucidal effects of acetic acid and vinegar solutions on SARS-CoV-2, but we do not recommend consuming vinegar as a means of prevention or treatment.