Geographers should contribute to promoting Japan’s transformation into a knowledge information society by publishing and providing their scientific research results that integrate human sciences and natural sciences comprehensively, overviewing the past, present, and future. To make this contribution and improve the geographic awareness of the Japanese public, faculties of geography should be established at many universities as bases for integrated, systematic research and education in geography.
Japan’s basically hierarchical and vertical structures in administrative and social systems, as well as people’s mindsets, have been interfering with Japan’s transformation into a horizontally networked society via information and communication technology and the Internet. As a result, Japan faces growing discrepancies in economic and information resources between greater Tokyo and other areas. That has also resulted in Japan’s relative decline in national power in an increasingly globalized world. In order to address these problems, Japan should redesign its national land structure into a horizontally networked one by relocating capital functions from Tokyo to another region. In addition, people’s mindsets should become more horizontally networked.
Geographers can and should be united and make essential contributions to transforming Japan in the 21st century on the basis of society’s grand visions.
This study describes the subsistence structure of the industrial agglomeration, with examples from the textile and apparel industrial agglomeration in Jamia Nagar, located in the National Capital Region, India. After Independence, Delhi accepted migrants from poor states located in North India. However, Muslims, as a religious minority community, strengthened their residential concentration because of the intensification of religious conflict between Hindus and Muslims. Consequently, Jamia Nagar became one of the Muslim colonies that received numerous male migrants.
The textile and apparel workshops in Jamia Nagar are in close proximity to the wholesalers and exporters in Delhi or suburban Delhi. This enables the workshops to receive job work-style orders from wholesalers and exporters. The workshops rely on human resources supplied from rural areas, based on local kinship and/or blood connections. The native origins of the workers and owners are mainly rural areas in poor states, and owners acquire their human resources from rural areas by utilizing local kinship connections. Migrant workers, on the other hand, find jobs through their connections with the owners and/or existing workers in the workshops.
In addition, workers can establish their own workshops and become owners themselves after acquiring manufacturing skills and various types of information such as customer profiles. This enables them to contribute to the sustainable development of the agglomeration in Jamia Nagar. It is also important to point out that the costs of establishing these workshops are relatively low. The working and living environments of workers are not good, but they nevertheless earn a certain amount of money.
This study examined whether the rate of bedrock erosion was reduced with the decrease in precipitation during the last glacial period in the Satsuma Peninsula, southwest Japan, with special attention to the recession of knickpoints. A comparison of recession rates of knickpoints at different timescales was us as an effective method to assess this topic. Two suitable knickpoints were identified in the Nagasato River. These knickpoints along with four knickpoints located around the Kawanabe Basin were investigated. In this area, the Ata welded ignimbrite underlies the Ito ignimbrite. The restored depositional surface of the Ata ignimbrite, based on information from outcrops and borehole logs, strongly suggests that most of the knickpoints in the Kawanabe Basin originated immediately after the deposition of the Ata ignimbrite at 110ka. The recession rates of knickpoints since 110 ka were obtained numerically from the distances of recession between their positions after forming at 110ka and their current locations. On the other hand, knickpoint recession in the past several hundred years was derived from knickpoints formed by man-made cutoffs established to develop meandering riverbeds for new rice fields in the historical age. Thus, in the Nagasato River, the estimated average recession rate from 110 ka to the present is 2.0-2.6cm per year, and that of the last 315 years is 0.8-2.0cm per year. The recession rates of the remaining four knickpoints in the Kawanabe Basin were within several millimeters per year to several centimeters per year. These results all showed that the long-term recession rate during the period including the last glacial period slightly exceeded the recession rate of the much shorter period including only the postglacial period. The geomorphological evidence provided by the current research indicates that there was no remarkable reduction in the erosion rate throughout the past 110,000 years in the Satsuma Peninsula.