The purpose of this study is to adjust the range of working table surface height. Experimental conditions for the table surface height were set at 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, and 20cm between working surfaces and elbow height. Forty-four male and female students participated in the experiment. The results of a questionnaire on the easy rate for conducting the task showed the preference for 10cm table height. On the other hand, the task was hard at 20cm table height. The ranking of easy task based on the results of the questionnaire, was 10cm, 15cm, 5cm and 20 cm table height. The results were statistically significant (p<0.001). The maximum frequency of trunk inclination was noted between 0 to 10 degrees at all the experimental conditions. In this study, the preferred working table height was at 10cm between working surface and elbow height. According to the results of the questionnaire, the rate of trunk inclination was 10cm ± 5cm table height. These results showed the need to make adjustments for working at comfortable table height. The adjusting range should be around 10cm between working surface height and elbow height.
This paper describes an outcomes index for workers based on a participatory approach to improving the workplace environment. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews of 14 workers, and their experiences were assessed by qualitative descriptive study analysis. The following five categories were extracted from the data about the outcomes that workers wanted: promoting awareness about occupational safety and health, increasing chances to act voluntarily, understanding the participatory approach, building attachment to the workplace through effective bonds between workers, and enhancing a sense of achievement and confidence based on the outcomes. Additional five categories were extracted about the outcomes that the facilitators of the index wanted: improving safety and health-risk sensitivity, gaining better-than-expected results, building relationships with workers, developing self-confidence, and knowing practical ways and strategies to ensure full participation. Finally, the following four categories were extracted as ideal outcomes related to workplace organizational issues: positive change in the workplace atmosphere, promoting mutual understanding and communication and increasing cases of workplace environment improvement at the workplace. These findings show the need to promote awareness and action about improving the workplace environment in a comprehensive manner. They also demonstrate the importance of constructing good relationships among participants striving for an improved workplace environment using a participatory approach.
An idiopathic disease with meningitis-like symptoms in infants, so-called meningitis named tentatively in infancy (SCMI), was endemic in Japan during the period of about 30 years from the mid Meiji era to the late Taisho era (early 20th century). In 1923, Professor Ikutaro Hirai at the Kyoto University reported that SCMI was a chronic lead-poisoning caused by the mothers’ cosmetic powder containing lead. In 1930, regulation of cosmetics including lead was stipulated in the Ordinance of the Ministry of Home Affairs. We previously reported the analysis of the articles published in a pediatric Journal, Acta Paediatrica Japonica, from 1927 to 1930, dealing with review articles, case reports, articles on clinical symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and pathology/autopsy of SCMI. Continued in the first part, this paper deals with articles on laboratory examinations and experimental findings published in the same period.