Japanese Journal of Qualitative Psychology
Online ISSN : 2435-7065
Volume 19 , Issue 1
Showing 1-12 articles out of 12 articles from the selected issue
  • Science Communicators’ Embodied Practices of Guiding Visitors to Successive Exhibits
    Rui SAKAIDA, Mayumi BONO, Ryosaku MAKINO
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 7-25
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    This paper investigated how Science Communicators (SCs) guide visitors to consecutive exhibits at the Miraikan Science Museum, using multimodal interaction analysis. First, we analyzed how SCs encouraged visitors to walk from one exhibit to the next. By shifting their gaze, posture, or position, the SCs attracted visitors’ attention, but employed various cues to induce them to walk. In case 1, the SC walked backward to avoid blocking the visitors’ view, thus encouraging one of them to walk. In case 2, having attracted the visitors’ attention, the SC prompted them to walk by beginning to walk himself. Next, we analyzed how SCs sustained conversation while walking. In case 1, the SC held the visitors’ gaze, thus visually maintaining their interactional space. In case 2, when the SC’s utterances had captured the visitors’ attention, they all faced forward while walking. These practices are "Miraikan style" methods of approaching exhibit interpretation. Interactions at Miraikan often involve a degree of fluidity, as SCs incorporate physical gestures into their interpretations and adapt to the visitors’ responses.
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  • A Detailed Analysis of Human Interaction in Passing an Object
    Keisuke KADOTA, Ryosaku MAKINO, Nobuhiro FURUYAMA
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 26-45
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    When passing an object from one person to another, how does the requester design the utterance and/or the concurrent body movements? To answer this question, we analyzed segments of interactional data. The results show that the requesters used a practice of displaying limited access to an object, and by so doing elicited a passing–behavior from one of the participants. More specifically, the requesters pointed to and/or reached out to the object, and let the other participants know that the requesters were not in a position to go and get the object. In this way, the requesters created an opportunity for one or a few participants to pass the object to him/herself. This suggests that differences in accessibility of an object to different participants not only constrain interactions, but can also be employed by participants as interactional resources.
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  • Theory Building by TAE Steps
    Teppei TSUCHIMOTO, Yurie ODA, Tatsuya SATO
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 46-67
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    This research examines how is the first author's felt sense of "good career support," engendered by his "moments of growth." Also, we discuss other possible support methods that could engender such opportunities for growth in people. Thinking at the Edge steps were used as a fundamental method to generate a theory of "good career support." To facilitate the reader’s intuitive understanding of the theory, the author generated the "table tennis rally metaphor," which describes how individuals can actively orient their careers even in uncertain and complex career environments. This metaphor can describe important career support elements related to concepts in narrative theory, such as "interpretations," "dialogical relationships," and "subjective time." Using metaphors is an effective way for career supporters to think in coordination with others through embodied feelings.
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  • Yukari MASUYAMA
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 68-82
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the developmental processes involved in learning to use a spoon. Eating behavior was observed in infants during lunchtime in the nursery, and relationships between the caregivers’ supporting behavior and the infants’ acquisition of the physical skills and motor movements required to use a spoon were assessed. The infants’ gradual transition to using a spoon on their own was dependent on the appropriate support and guidance of the caregivers. Analysis of the physical interactions between the caregivers and infants revealed a co–relationship between the relative increase in the infants’ self–feeding behavior and the physical movements needed for effective spoon use, and a gradual decrease in the physical support provided by the caregivers. The close relationship between the infants’ realization that their own body movements differed from those of others and autonomy in eating are discussed in terms of the theory of phenomenological intersubjectivity proposed by Husserl.
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  • Tae HORIUCHI, Masahiro NOCHI
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 83-102
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    This study aimed to investigate the process of realizing "return to competition" in injured athletes and to examine their meaning of "return to competition." Using the Trajectory Equifinality Approach, 9 male athletes with experience of injury participated in semi–structured interviews. The results of the qualitative analysis showed that the meaning–making process involved the following 3 stages: (1) "wavering vision for development as an athlete," (2) "equating returning to play with their goal," and (3) "trying to find meaning in being injured." The results also revealed 2 types of meaning of "return to competition"; that in which "return to competition" is equated to returning to what the athletes used to be and that in which "return to competition" pertains to becoming more strong athletes through the injury. These findings provide a new understanding of sports injuries for athletes and contribute to the further development of athlete–centered care.
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  • The Roles of Social Context and Changing Perceptions of Linguistic Proficiency
    Chisaki TOYAMA–BIALKE, Makoto SHIBAYAMA, Makiko IKEGAMI, Noboru TAKAH ...
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 105-125
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    This study analyzed how a multilingual boy performed reading activities. We also considered his reading activities in terms of his social context and his perception of his own linguistic proficiency. Data on the reading engagement of a male German–Japanese fourth–grader in Germany were collected by his mother via the diary method over a 4–year period. The developmental process underpinning his reading activities comprised the following stages: 1) His parents changed their value orientation and supported German rather than Japanese reading for his academic activities in secondary school. His subsequent experiences of reading enjoyment led him to continue this reading behavior. 2) Supported by the development of his personality, a future–oriented perspective, his cognitive ability, and his perception of domain– specific proficiencies in different languages, he started to organize his reading autonomously. While these factors fostered reading activities in German and English, his reading in Japanese was inconsistent due to a lack of academic pressure and limited social influence from Japanese peers, who were available only during summer vacations.
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  • Analyses of a Mother’s Narratives Based on Ian Hacking’s Theory of Interactions
    Fumiharu WATANABE
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 126-140
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    The effects of autobiographies written by autistic people on the understanding of mothers regarding their children discussed by analyzing the narratives of mothers based on Ian Hacking’s "interaction" theory. Hacking’s theory implies mutual interactions between concepts and people, such that there are interactions between concepts developed by specialists and people have been classified based on these concepts. Specialists name people and classify them into "types" of human beings. The assignment of a type changes the self– recognition and the behavior of people that were classified. On the other hand, the behavior of the people can, in turn, change professional concepts through their interactions with the classification. Hacking defined social conditions, which are the basis of these concepts, and types of human beings as "matrices." Firstly, the meaning structure of autism perceived by M was constructed based on the normal development of healthy children as the model and compared with the slower development of her own child, which was an assimilative matrix with a healthy person as the goal. On the other hand, the perspective obtained by M through reading autobiographies written by autistic people were non assimilative and reflected the meaning structure perceived by autistic people themselves. It is suggested that acquiring a new matrix by changing the perspective would facilitate understanding the characteristics of autistic people from a perspective closer to that of autistic people themselves.
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  • Analyzing the Interview Data of Newly Graduated Nurses Using the KJ Method
    Takiko IMAI, Mari OKADA, Miyuki TAKASE
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 141-157
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    We aimed to study the factors that lead to errors while multitasking in newly graduated nurses simultaneously caring for more than one patient. Data were collected from seven newly graduated nurses using semi-structured interviews and were analyzed using the KJ method. The factors of insecurity reported by the participants were based on the "problem [in] learning attitude toward past practical training" and the "difficulty dealing with simultaneous multiple risks of tasks and challenges in dealing with more than one patient." The former resulted in "uncertainty regarding [participants’] learning" and a "lack of knowledge and understanding of pathological conditions, disease symptoms, and cures." Furthermore, the participants "lacked confidence in their expertise and individuality" in the clinical setting, which resulted in "difficulty in identifying nursing-related priorities." They were also affected by an "absence of human relationships" and a feeling of "incompetence when reporting on patients." Consequently, the participants lacked the emotional and professional preparedness to overcome their insecurities. In basic nursing education, students’ learning attitudes must be sufficiently developed during practical training.
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  • Regarding Patients Unable to Communicate Verbally Anew as “Sentient Individuals”
    Sachiko TASHIRO
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 158-174
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    This study describes the structure of intensive care nurses’ preconscious actions toward patients unable to communicate verbally. The methods used are interviews and participatory observation in practical nursing settings, and the approach is phenomenological. Nurses’ preconscious actions were prompted by immediate experiences perceived directly before conscious awareness or judgment, triggering their responses. Such perception relied on corporality shared with patients and a rich history of nursing experience. Despite patients’ inability to communicate verbally, nurses regarded them as “sentient individuals,” and this enabled nurses to provide care that departed from the usual dichotomy between nurse and patient. Such preconscious actions always underlay and supported the medical approach. Meanwhile, patients’ inability to communicate verbally meant that nurses were prompted into a dialogue– based mode of asking questions while taking action, as a result of which the potential of relationships with patients was expanded. Nursing style was also prompted by the appearance of patients indicating suffering, which precipitates in nurses gradually as something unwelcome in the course of attending patients closely day after day.
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  • Rutsuko UEYAMA, Shinichiro SUGIMURA
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 175-193
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    Preschool teachers’ perceptions of children’s behavior are important components of the teaching profession. This study used the concept of Mental Models to examine preschool teachers’ understanding of children. Participants (N=33) completed semi–structured interviews after being shown hypothetical vignettes describing children aggressive behavior and exhibiting shyness. A modified grounded theory approach was then used to categorize and analyze the data. The results showed that there are three common categories for understand child behavior: (a) filtering a child’s individual information, (b) knowing child developmental standards, and (c) considering the expectations for child development at the preschool level. Teachers must first focus on the child’s personal information—individual characteristics, feelings, interests, and family background, among other things. By comparing that information with child developmental standards based on a relative viewpoint, teachers’ perceptions will be led to a more proper understanding of each child. In addition, considering the developmental expectations commonly placed on preschool children leads teachers to build relationships between experiences with the actual child and their professional understanding of how the child should be developing.
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  • From Comparison of Male and Female University Students
    Yutaro ATSUZAWA, Mari SUGA, Atsuko SAITO
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 194-213
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    In this qualitative study, which focused on attitudes toward, and perceptions about fathers, we aimed to find out the changing process in, and factors affecting father–child relationships during adolescence, and their differences by sex. We conducted semi–structured interviews with undergraduate students in their late adolescence (N = 15: eight males, seven females). Data from the interviews were analyzed using the Trajectory Equifinality Model. The Trajectory Equifinality Model is a method for comparing diverse and complex phenomena occurring over the course of life as a function of time (Yasuda & Sato, 2012). The results revealed that, for the male participants, a father was identified as an important object in achieving psychological independence, and the acceptance of their new values and interests by fathers had a highly significant effect on their attitudes toward fathers. On the other hand, for the female participants, a father was accepted as a parent possessing features different from those of a mother. The mothers’ mediating role affected the female participants’ attitudes toward fathers. Thus, during adolescence, there are gender differences in attitudes toward fathers.
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  • The Role of Narrative in Reconstructing a Community of Practice
    Kazuma TAKEUCHI
    2019 Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 214-230
    Published: 2019
    Released: April 12, 2021
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    This study investigates the development of relationships with non–existence generation for a revived skill that had once been lost. I focus on the construction of Sugihara paper, a skill that is passed down in the town of Taka town in Hyogo Prefecture. Two approaches are used. The first approach focuses on the meaningfulness of this art regarding its revival for the generation that has revived this skill; this is assessed through a life– story interview. The data show that individuals have found a narrative that connects them with earlier generations to construct a community of practice through the narrative. Second approach focuses on reconstruction process of skill over generation. I interview second generation who conduct revival of skill. The data show that these individuals connect with the earlier generation using other narratives. This means that revival requires multiple narratives that connect generations.
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