This research explored the coping styles of Japanese host families in intercultural contact situations with international
guests. The semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Japanese hosts who have experienced homestay
families in local communities. The collected data was analyzed in terms of culture "Awareness, Understanding and
Coping", using the AUC framework of the AUC-GS learning model. The type considered ideal in traditional
intercultural exchange was found with its goal overcoming intercultural conflicts. This type was then divided into 4
sub-types according to the developmental conditions of their coping strategies, which suggested a developmental
model for hosts’ coping ability, progressively creating cross-cultural understanding. In addition, there found the new
categories of the host type, one of which paying attentions to advantages and attractiveness of international exchange
with positively oriented recognition while lacking the analytical perspectives on culture differences. Another new
type found was the host conducting the decategorization coping style with the denial of culture differences. The
results were finalized as the "AUC Branched Model" in the end.
This article analyzes how a bilingual child in a bicultural family develops reading engagement in two languages. We
propose that the mechanism underpinning this achievement involves a cross-generational cultural transfer process by
which parents transfer their reading experiences, knowledge, and practices to their child using different mother tongues.
Using data collected on an 8-year-old German-Japanese bilingual child in Germany via the diary method, we analyzed
reading activities and diverse modes of cultural transfer during a 2-year period. The findings can be summarized as
follows: The transfer process began with parental support in "hierarchical transfer relationships" and shifted to the
child’s "self-socialization," taking the initiative in reading engagement. Shared reading experiences in "equal transfer
relationships" within the family motivated the child to read; however, these relationships were gradually extended
outside the family only with regard to the majority language. The minority language was especially dependent on
parental practices utilizing the limited resources of this language. The bilingual child constructed a hybrid reading
culture by combining the two reading worlds.
When we study cultural phenomena, we will encounter an important theoretical difficulty. In this theoretical paper,
we clarified the difficulty that both cross-cultural psychology and cultural psychology have faced when they
understand theoretically the relationship between individual and cultural group. The most critical point of the
difficulty is the paradoxical nature of cultural group that it appears simultaneously both as ambiguous object of which
the intension and extension cannot be defined clearly, and as rigid substance which have heavy influence to human
development and our daily social life. Based on the viewpoint of "Cultural Psychology of Difference", we have
shown the new theoretical way to understand the paradoxical nature of the cultural phenomena, and set up original
method of analyzing them with our concept of“Expanded Mediational Structure”(EMS).
Although maintaining local traditions, such as festivals and annual events, has become increasingly difficult, the
disappearance of local traditions is not inevitable; in some communities, they are actively maintained and developed by
community members. To examine such communities, we conducted field research on the Ryusei Matsuri Festival in
the Chichibu region of Japan. The distinctive feature of this festival is the launching of handmade rockets called
ryusei. Participant observations and interviews indicate that the diversification of the careers and lifestyles of
community residents has made it more difficult to maintain festival traditions. However, the interdependent
relationships inherent to the assembly of ryusei promote participation in this community tradition. Finally, the
relationship between the unique techniques used to make ryusei and the development of the tradition is discussed in
terms of historical constraint.
This study examined how people with "mental diseases" construct their intra- and interpersonal self-images in terms of
their experiences related to "mental disease". In general, the notion of "mental disease" rests on application of the
medical model to psychological phenomena. In this study, however, the author analyzed experiences related to
"mental disease" from a perspective that viewed such experiences as "illnesses" that could be addressed with a
narrative approach. The results identified nine concepts pertinent to the participants’ self-images, which were
embedded in two qualitatively different types of relationships. Individuals with "mental diseases" seem to construct
their self-images by being conscious of the social definition of "normal" in existent notions of disease and recovery
and their own notions of "normal" depending on the particular relational context of those two types of relationships.
According to these self-images, such individuals seem to create and resolve conflicts and assign meanings that
facilitate their lives.
Gender division among elementary school teachers was investigated by examining the narratives of male teachers in an
interview survey. 10 male teachers participated in the study. Their experiences and practices when teaching in the
lower grades of elementary schools were analyzed. Main findings were as follows. (1) Many male teachers
considered that teaching in the lower grades of elementary schools to be temporary; they were expected to play the
male role in controlling student’s behavior. (2)Initially, when teaching in the lower grades, male teachers were
surprised and felt uncomfortable with little children and doing "feminine" work. Their narratives indicated that
teaching in the lower grades is shadow work filled with "training" so that children could prepare for the upper grades.
(3) Narratives of male teachers that continued teaching in the lower grades suggest that they develop their own unique
teaching styles and interesting teaching practices. The implicit problem of gender division and its influence on
teaching practices in elementary schools is discussed.
The Danshukai, the largest self-help group for alcoholics in Japan, maintains a rule known as "iippanashi,
kikippanashi" (literally, just say and just listen). This prevents attendants from direct responses including criticism
and interrogation, and is believed to secure attendants' freedom of narration. However, it remains unclear how this
rule binds attendants to keep the norms required for alcoholics. We conducted a series of participatory observations
in four Danshukais, and analyzed irregular forms of narration. We identified two aspects of deviation of norms: (1)
Attendants can try to correct other's recognition or judgment about some issues that are not necessarily stipulated in the
cord of the Danshukai, but that can lead participants to drinking or destabilize a participant’s identity as alcoholics.
(2) On the other hand, the criticism and interrogation were always palliated by altering narrative structures and
components. Respondent narratives were modified in terms of their themes, subjects, agents, and contents, while
tones of criticism and directness were weakened.
In integrated studies, it is often pointed out that students have difficulties in determining themes, based on their own
interests. This paper explores the processes through detailed case studies of two contrasting students, by which highschool students turn their vague interests into concrete themes of study while undertaking their year-long graduation
course of study. The data were collected through interviews with the students and from their diary logs. I analyzed
theme-setting processes in terms of interactions between their topics, their inner referents, the voices of others, and
their self-judgment. I analyzed the relationship between the voices of others, and their self-judgment based on
"authoritative discourse" and "internally persuasive discourse." In conclusion, 1) themes come from their inner
referents and are constructed through interaction with the voice of others, 2) sufficient awareness of their inner
referents, appropriate self-judgment and having a good mentor are necessary, 3) teachers should have a trusting
relationship with students, understand their inner referents correctly and recognize the persuasiveness of the words
themselves so that their advice becomes internally persuasive.
Autoethnography is a genre of qualitative research that reveals multiple layers of consciousness, connecting the
personal to the cultural. This paper describes the use of dialogical autoethnography as a method and considers its
usefulness and significance. Autoethnography is usually carried out by a researcher recalling the past and recording
these recollections himself/herself. In this study, the author first narrated her life story to a co-researcher, focusing on
her relationship with her sister who has a disability. The interpretation and analysis of the text was then carried out
collaboratively with the co-researcher. Critics of traditional autoethnography have questioned the reliability of the
data obtained using this method and the lack of objectiveness of the narrated story. They note its strong emphasis on
the self-narrative rather than on analysis of data and argue that it obscures connections between the researcher and
others. Dialogical autoethnography aims to respond to such criticisms and present new perspectives through the use
of a co-researcher. The traits of the co-researcher and the relationship between the researcher and co-researcher are
The purpose of this study was to use a "narrative ensemble" approach to investigate an aporia used in cultural
psychology to describe two different aspects of human beings. The first aspect involves human relationships in the
context of various surroundings, and the second involves individuals as psychological beings. The author referred to
these two different approaches as "self in culture” and “culture in self," respectively. Through this analysis, the
author confirmed the importance to psychology of concretely describing both the relationships in which individuals
participate and the status of individuals as intentional actors living in relation to one another. To this end, the author
proposed that descriptions of human beings rely on a "narrative ensemble" method, which uses a narrative approach to
data analysis in an attempt to give meaning to human realities by collecting narratives from more than one person
within the same context.