This study examines how a hibakusha (survivor of the atomic-bomb) start to narrate his/her experience after the end of
the war. Although the hibakushas' narrative has been analyzed from the view point of politics and nationalism, this
study focuses on the hibakusha as individuals and examined the development of their identity with respect to personal
and environmental factor. The analysis revealed that the time when hibakusha start to narrate is related to their degree
of suffering. Four distinctive features concerning the content and time when they start to relate their experiences were
identified: the narrative for themselves as sufferers in 1950s, the narrative to others who were not sufferers in 1960s
and 1970s, the narrative for others who are victims in 1980s, and the narrative for the future generation in 1990s. The
hibakusha appears to construct his/her atomic-story of these four types of narratives through the processes of dialogue
between the story-teller and the audience. The dialogue in turn is reflection of the characteristics of each time period,
the hibakusha's life stage and the social environment which surrounds the hibakusha. Therefore, continuous dialogue
exchange acts as a process through which he/she can find a new identity as a "hibakusha".
This paper analyzed the process by which children who were hospitalized with cancer underwent painful procedures
with a focus on the remark "GAMBARE" ("Hold on!"). This study approached to "GAMBARE" from a "here and
now" perspective, whereas previous studies tended to generalize and overlook individual experiences. I found that the
medical staffs used the word in almost all the situations; while the parents said it to their children once the procedure
started, although they were usually told they could not say so. However children suffering from the same disease
rarely used the word to each other. Although the pain felt by a child is a private matter, people around him/her cannot
be indifferent and become involved in it. I discuss these findings in relation to the following points: 1) to hold on or
to accept a painful future, 2) to be negative about a medical procedure or to understand a disease, 3) taking a "here and
now" or future perspective to pain.
In psychology, time is typically represented as a horizontal axis from left to right, and is conceptualized as "the linearprogressivism and irreversibility" and is measured quantitatively as "real entities". In this article, I reconsider the
fundamental frame of these concepts compared by the visual narrative "Image Map of Life." I select typical images
of time and life, "Flow and Stream", "Arrow", "Cycle" and "Being". Cycle images are related with the concepts of
"reflection", "return", "comeback", "rhythm" and "repeat". Being images are related with "waiting", "contemplation"
and "readiness". We need multiple concepts of time for psychology, such as Subjective time (A series), Material time
(B series), Space-time positioning (C series) and Generating in time (D series). Visual narrative is related with the C
series of Time.
What does it mean to reconsider the principle of "Quality of Life"? "Quality of Life" is discussed in the fields of
Terminal Care. Since the word "quality" is deeply connected with the sense of value, the following topics are always
argued. They are; (1) what kinds of standard and value the "quality" is determined by, (2) whose viewpoints reflect the
"quality," and (3) for whom the quality is. The primary purpose of this research is to clarify the "Quality of Life" for
those people at the end of life according to their standard and value and at their viewpoints. In this research,
interviews (dialogues) and "Participate Observation" were conduced under the principle of the "Quality of Life" while
being with those people. Through the sets of interviews with a terminal cancer patient, this research clarify the
"Quality of Life" for people at the end of life under the palliative care was not the same as the conventional clinical
study had established. That is, it did not include either physical and mental comfort or acceptance of death against
their wish to live. Also, it was revealed that the "Quality of Life" was deeply connected with one's way of life and
their consciousness of life and death.
In psychology, a number of studies have examined ideas of the meaning of life, but no comprehensive model has been
developed that integrates philosophical foundations and empirical research. This study constructed an integral model
for concepts of the meaning of life using a model construction methodology based on qualitative data. Three models
were constructed: Framework (Model I), Element (Model II), and Composition (Model III). Model I was a theoretical
framework model based on philosophical, anthropological, and psychological theories. Model II was constructed
using categorization data on the meaning of life drawn from various sources in previous studies. Model III was
constructed by integrating Models I and II. These models proposed four fundamental principles underlying concepts
of the meaning of life: Personal, Relational, Social/universal, and Religious/spiritual. These principles formed a
"nested" structure that unfolds from Personal to Relational to Social/universal to Religious/spiritual. In addition,
some typical cases were analyzed by assessing structural properties of meaning systems. The model may provide a
comprehensive framework for understanding concepts such as "depth" and "breadth" as associated with concepts of the
meaning of life.
The present study investigated the function of gestures in the descriptions of events by preschoolers. Specifically,
utilizing McNeill's "Growth Point" theory (2005), I examined how these children's gestures contributed to the creation
of contrasts in their spoken discourse. When preschool children describe an event consisting of multiple activities
(like playing on a slide), they often make unintended erroneous expressions. Frequently, they begin with the central
activity of a sequence of events instead of describing it in chronological order. This study indicates that in
descriptions of events, gestures provide the speaker cue(s) for forming their next idea or serve as a resource for speech
repair. The results suggest that gestures have at least two functions: 1) a visual-feedback function and 2) a contextcreation function, both of which have been largely overlooked so far. These gestural functions are considered to
contribute to the process of utterance formation and can provide an index for assessing the ontogenetic development of
In this study, the commitment of listeners when listening to another's story was considered from two perspectives; the
"way of listening" and the interaction between the speaker and the listener. In the research session, a speaker told two
stories which were retold by the listener. Three cases were selected with differing degrees of transformation in the
retold stories, and varying degrees of fluctuation in the retelling performance. Listener A, who transformed the stories
the least when retelling them, kept and valued the original stories and showed a basic listening attitude. However, if
the speaker finds no difference between the original story and the retold story, the listener's commitment cannot
influence the speaker. Listener B, who showed the most fluctuations in retelling the stories, committed not to the
story but to the speaker. Listener C, who transformed the stories the most when retelling them, was the "best listener"
for the speaker in this investigation. She dived into a story and reproduced it from within. She substantially changed
the original story, and in one sense destroyed it, but her deep commitment moved the speaker.
I examined the roles and functions of teachers in fostering children's self-expression and in guiding and heightening
their artistic expression within the class ensemble of an elementary school classroom. The "Educational
Connoisseurship and Educational Criticism" (Eisner, 2002/ 1st ed., 1979) was used to generate a model of classroom
teaching in which participation in social-cultural practice is brought into the modern school setting. I argue that in the
classroom, the teacher can create an ensemble as a social-cultural practice of an autonomous expressive community
within the class and can participate in the classroom dialogue as the elder of the ensemble community. Student
learning within this community acquires meaning from the following precepts. The expertise of the teacher functions
as a model for the children, stimulating their own appreciation and pursuit of musicality. Diversity is adopted as a
prime principle, enabling dialogue at an equal level between the teacher and children and promoting mutual
recognition, despite differences in musical ability.
This paper explores the relation between narrative and rationality. Bruner's positive views about the importance of
narrative are defended against the negative appraisal of cognitive theories of Kahneman and Tversky and Stanovich.
It is argued that whereas narrative is a device for capturing nuance of meaning, cognitive theories identify rationality
exclusively with the use of strict or narrow meanings of such logical connectives as and and or meanings that took
their specialized form only with the rise of modern Western scientific discourse. Narrative remains the dominant form
for expressing rich and diverse, contextually sensitive, meanings.