Two pioneers of the qualitative psychology, social and developmental psychologists, from different generations and
genders, discussed the history of their research and future perspectives in qualitative psychology. The main topics were
the close relationship between fieldwork and qualitative research; the need to create a journal for publishing both
qualitative studies and theoretical and methodological discussion of qualitative studies; the importance of the research
theme, not only for researchers but also for participants; the need for psychological studies from an emic perspective;
questions about the anonymous treatment of participants; and strategies for generalization from case studies.
Three panelists in the Preparatory Symposium of the Foundation of the Japanese Association of Qualitative Psychology
(JAQP) presented their views on future perspectives of qualitative research as well as on the new association JAQP.
Otani's lecture from the perspective of educational technology was entitled, "What contributions do qualitative
approaches make to new research?" After giving a brief lecture on qualitative methodology, he emphasized that
qualitative methods lead to new research paradigms that have not been previously explored, leading to the extension
and development of research. Muto gave a lecture entitled, "Qualitative research has changed research in the field and
will reform the academic world.", about his own research career and future perspectives for qualitative psychology. His
view is that research based on qualitative methods will promote positive relationships between researchers and
practitioners in psychology and other research disciplines. In the lecture, "The association's name includes the word
"psychology" which doesn't imply the exclusion of non-psychological research or researchers". Sato spoke about the
implications of the foundation of this new association on qualitative methods from the perspective of the history of
psychology as well as the sociology of science. The new association hopes to provide an arena for all researchers who
wish to carryout research in all disciplines, thereby creating a fusion of disciplines, or in other words to conduct transdisciplinary
Qualitative psychology builds its understanding of psychological phenomena on the basis of phenomenologically
oriented approaches in psychology (Brentano, Meinong, Ehrensfeld, Külpe, Piaget, Vygotski). Its ontological starting
point is unambiguous: the world consists of different flexible structural forms, and their corresponding
specifiable sets of conditions under which these forms become other forms. This perspective is
shared between chemistry, biology, and other natural sciences in which the structural nature of the object of
investigation is an axiomatic given. Qualitative investigation is primary in all basic sciences, where quantification is
used selectively as a technical tool, rather than a symbolic means for public demonstrations of being "scientific."
Qualitative psychology branches off from the common ground it shares with its quantitative counterpart— the basic
notion of the nominal scale— different trajectory of systemic analyses of single cases. Qualitative psychology can be
productive if it reverses the tradition of methods-dominated psychology in favor of an epistemological inquiry where
all parts of methodology are mutually related.
In conducting qualitative research, especially in the field professional practitioners work, researchers encounter at least
three kinds of dilemmas; dilemma of ignorance, description, and collaboration with practitioners. In the present study,
we focus upon the third dilemma. In qualitative filed research, since collaborative relationships between practitioners
and researchers underlie the core of research process, dilemma in collaboration must be settled. We propose a new
research methodology, 'Re-description method,' to address it. In the re-description method, researchers examine central
concepts on which practitioners base for their practice. In examining a concept, we record practitioners' descriptive
language but with paraphrasing the exact words that practitioners use to describe the central concept. This procedure
enables researchers to identify what constitutes the central concept, which leads to revision of a theoretical framework.
Visual data are not readily amenable to verbalization, which makes it difficult to analyze such data qualitatively. This
study examined the usefulness of the add-on software "mirvux" for Microsoft Excel for qualitative analysis of visual
behavior, such as bending one's fingers. Many people bend their fingers, especially when counting, by bending the
thumb first and then the rest of the fingers one by one. We analyzed twenty kinds of bending behavior obtained from
15 of 54 subjects, and identified patterns such as finger-bending in response to being shown a single object or in
response to something abstract rather than concrete. These observations suggest that finger bending is not necessarily
linked to counting. Our experience indicates that mirvux can be useful for identifying patterns in visual data.
This study was designed to investigate how nursing home residents escalate their dissatisfaction and uneasiness in the
nursing home life. The data on 26 residents were analyzed according to Modified Grounded Theory Approach by a
clinical psychologist of the nursing home. The analysis revealed the following: The residents can live stable lives
with 'Individual life-routine' while forming relations with the home; changes in 'Individual life-routine' and relations
with the home due to various causes lead the residents to reconstruct them with the help of the staff; and care
interaction occasionally results in a vicious circle of staff-oriented care, residents' hesitation in requesting care, and
narrow care relations. In this circle reconstruction of the 'Individual life-routine' is increasingly difficult, resulting in
escalation of the residents' dissatisfaction and uneasiness in the nursing home life. The staff should be sensitive to
changes in residents, 'Individual life-routine' and adapt care interaction to their needs.
This study analyzed the psychological narratives of family life stories on headstones. First, the family life stories
on19th century family graves were examined in three old towns: Haworth, York, and Oxford. Then, the family life
stories of contemporary children's graves in York cemetery were analyzed. Life stories can be studied not only from the
events of individuals' lives or from the perspective of life-span development but also from the stories narrated after
their deaths. The death stories on headstones have at least three psychological functions: they are simple summaries of
individual lives narrated in reverse from the age at death; they contain the chained, repeated expression of family
relationships, told using the loving bonds between parents, children, and intimate generations; and they are
communications from the living to the dead and from past to future generations with a long time perspective.
Starting from our personal experience, and proceeding through the systematic sampling and structuralization of
numerous cases of "solipsistic experience", we tried to establish a theme for psychological study based on these
neglected experiences. All cases were treated as "texts", that is, data for qualitative analysis. In section 1, several
spontaneous cases, some corresponding to the two types of solipsism, were presented and considered in order to
motivate and facilitate a more systematic study. In section 2, three sampling fields, which were collections of "Iexperience"
from college students, were presented and considered, since many cases similar to solipsistic experience
were found in the three sampling fields. The method of assessing these cases was characterized as an "idiomodific"
method, and a special kind of questionnaire method to collect these cases was called the "recollection inducing
questionnaire method". In section 3, 60 cases in total from the three sampling fields were selected by three "judges".
These cases were newly categorized as "solipsistic experiences and fantasies". They were arranged according to three
classification axes: "doubt about others/ doubt about the world", "looking down/ looking up", and "philosophical/
fantastic". In section 4, the significance of the three-dimensional model constructed above was considered. Several
methodological reflections were added.
This research sought a better understanding of perceptual constancy in dynamic touch. It is argued that both traditional
and ecological approaches are inadequate and that some qualitative experimental phenomenology analyses should be
applied in addition to quantitative psychophysics methods. In an experiment, participants were asked to report the
perceived length of rods by dynamic touch. Thereafter, self-reported changes in their impressions owing to different
ways of wielding the rods were qualitatively analyzed. Qualitative analyses clarified differences in length perception
that have not been investigated by quantitative approaches. To explore constancy in dynamic touch, it is preferable to
integrate qualitative and quantitative approaches without eliminating the effects of different ways of wielding the
This study used visual ethnography to examine the image that Japanese early childhood educators have of a "good
preschool teacher." Data were obtained from 143 preschool teachers. To stimulate discourse, the teachers were asked to
view four video clips of preschool activities: role-playing in the kitchen, sand box, trampolines, and handicraft. Then,
they wrote comments on a worksheet. The teachers' comments on these video clips were analyzed qualitatively using a
modified grounded theory approach. The image of a "good preschool teacher" was closely connected with "child
centeredness." Other categories extracted from the analysis included "understands children," "facilitates children's
activities," "organizes children's social network," and "constructs an optimal environment." The main findings were
that there were no differences in the comments made by novice and experienced teachers, that "teacher centeredness"
tended to be recognized as "an image of an undesirable preschool teacher," and that the video clips tended to draw
impressions only about the witnessed objective information. Nevertheless, the video clips would probably affect
participants' speculation and their interpretation of information that was not included in the visual material. Further
research is needed to develop more information on the image of a good teacher, and to evaluate the possibility of using
video clips for training teachers in early childhood education.
The narratives of junior high school teachers who had been engaged in student guidance over a long period were
examined. Ten guidance teachers participated in semi-structured interviews. It was found that teachers described their
students using two sets of contradictory perspectives: "student as a member of a group" vs. "student as a person", and
"student as immature" vs. "student as equal partner". Most teachers' perspectives were situated somewhere between
these two sets of contradictory images. Most teachers pointed out that treating each student as an equal partner is very
important to the process of developing a good relationship with that student. In the context of these relationships, it is
suggested that students often feel that a guidance teacher is a person in whom they can trust.
The purpose of this paper is to propose a writing skill in qualitative research that could be used to solve the problem of
arbitrariness by methodological extension of structure-construction qualitative psychology. First, we briefly review the
arbitrary problem. Second, we propose a concept to solve problem. Third, we apply the concept to writing skills and
formulate it as a research model in qualitative research. Finally, we examine the significance of this skill by contrasting
it with the modified grounded theory approach.
Couples suffering from infertility put their hopes in medical technology, and are willing to put up with the pain of
infertility treatments and being infertile. I interviewed nine couples that were still unable to have children after
infertility treatments and were considering adoption, to evaluate their experiences with infertility. Then, I used the
descriptive 'Trajectory Equifinality Model'. First, I classified four selection branch paths related to choices related to
infertility treatment and adoption, and identified cases according to three types. Second, I divided the narrative related
to selection into five dimensions, and indicated the trajectories of the three over time. Third, I described meanings for
people considering their choices at the bifurcation points. Finally, I discuss the significance of this model.