This paper is focused on a lukewarm(nurumayu in Japanese)constitution of Japanese firms, which is a typical state of the low-vitality organization in Japan. This study proposes an effective temperature hypothesis, which explains that the member's sense of lukewarm is caused by the difference between the system temperature and the body temperature. The system temperature and the body temperature are defined as the indexes of change inclination of the organizational system and the members, respectively. We develope a method to measure the body temperature and the system temperature, and by using this method, the effective temperature hypothesis is supported by our empirical research on Japanese firms. This hypothe sis provides a useful method to examine the degree of vitality of the organization.
It is shown in this paper that Hayashi's third method of quantification, whose algorithm is same as that of correspondence analysis, is effectively applicable to statistical analysis of test scores. The procedure is based on a scoring method; each item is characterized by two numerical values, which are called “ correct-answer weight ” and “ wrong-anaswer weight ”, and each examinee is characterized by a numerical value called “ score ”. In order to make the interpretation of the result easy some useful quantities are defined.They are “ index of incon sistency ” of examinees, “ difficulty level ” and “ index of discriminating power ” of test items. We also investigate the relationship between the scoring method proposed here and the methods based on the latent trait theory and so-called S-P curve theory.Examples are shown illustrate how to apply the method to real data.