Quantitative studies of social stratification and social mobility have greatly contributed to the spread and popularization of statistical analysis among sociological researches. Various new statistical methods were promptly utilized in the field of stratification studies and this helped not only sociologists to analyse the stratification data with greater conceptual clarity and precision but statisticians to develop their methods with concrete empirical applications. However, in recent days the fever which in past days activated many stratification researches seems to have declined from its highest level. One reason for this is undoubtedly the general, both in academics and in populace, decline of concern over the class problems in modern society. Another reason seems to reside in the quantitative stratification studies themselves. This paper analyses the methodological problems which we the stratification researchers need to solve in order to reactivate the social stratification studies.
A history of postwar Japan in the aspect of social stratification or social inequality is presented by the data from the National Survey of Social Stratificaion and Social Mobility, called as “the SSM survey” in Japan, conducted in 1955, 1965, 1975, 1985, and 1995. Just after the defeat of World War II in 1945, nearly about 50% of Japanese workers were engaged in farming and kindred occupations such as fishing and forestry. However, in the following 50 years, Japanese society has accomplished industrialization and already arrived at post-industrial stage. Also, the “affluent” society was realized through the high economic growth in 1960s and 1970s. Changes in inequality in possession of social resources and opportunities and in class consciousness from 1955 to 1995 are examined. Contrary to the self-image by the people, Japanese society did not become equal at least in economic or social spheres. There appears tendency toward expansion of inequality and immobility of social stratification since latter half of 1970s. However, class consciousness did not show corresponding change. Regarding those inequality and class consicousness, two turning points of Japanese society may be pointed out. One is the time of “the oil crisis” in 1973-74, and the other is the latter half of 1980s and 1990s, the period of low or stable economic growth. Changes at those turning points and their meanings are presented.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the trends in social mobility in postwar Japan. We obtained the following results based on the SSM survey data. First, the importance of education in status attainment has increased. It can be explained naturally by the decline of self-employed sectors. Secondly, while this trend increased society's openness to some extent, a class difference in educational opportunity remains the same as it was in the past. Thirdly, the linkage between education and occupational status hasn't changed in spite of upgrading in the level of education of workers. The same observation applies to the middle stage of careers beyond the entrance stage. Furthermore, the difference in attainment made by university's academic prestige is stable. It seems reasonable to conclude that our society has maintained the same mobility structure for these decades.
This study examines the relationship between cultural reproduction and lifestyle in the social stratification process in Japan. The application of LISREL models to 1995 SSM data shows two main routes of cultural reproduction. First, respondents' class of origin determines inherited cultural capital. Then, the inherited cultural capital affects lifestyle and high cultural activities. This process concerns habitus and cultural transmission by the family. Second, class of origin influences educational achievement, which influences destination. Then, destination determines high cultural activities. Also, the second route shows the cultural transmission by school and class conditions. The two main routes of cultural reproduction, family route and status attainment route, are affected by each other; however, substantive differences in the cultural reproduction process exist between men and wemen: (1) Wemen's class of origin has a positive effect on destination directly in contrast to men. (2) Wemen's destination influences their lifestyle directly, unlike men. (3) Men's inherited cultural capital affects both educational achievement and destination, but that of women affects educational achievement only. (4) For women, status attainment by marriage is an important life event, because lifestyle is influenced by destination. (5) Wemen's origin has a direct effect on destination. These findings also support our two main routes-model of cultural reproduction and lifestyle.
First we clarified the “logical” structure of prerception of justice. Then we analyzed data on justice perceptions in Social Stratification and Mobility research that was held in 1995 as national sample survey in Japan. We hypothesized that both self-interest and one's internalized value system determine one's justice ideals through social cognition. From this model we made several derivations for verification. The data showed that “effort” was most preferred as justice ideal for allocating position and richness, but “contribution” was most popular as social cognition. By logit regression we found that female and less educated persons support “effort” as justice ideal. Young higher educated persons with higher family income showed higher support for “contribution” as social cognition in logit regression. These outcomes indicate the usefulness of our model, but they also suggest that the explanatory power of our model is not very strong.
The purpose of this study is to examine the statistical methods for discriminating human faces with the ratings on feature scales and the descriptions of feature key-words given by observers. For that purpose, multinomial and linear discriminant analyses of the rating variables, and multinomial and Bernoulli ones of the key-word variables are presented. Those two classes of the analyses are integrated into the method for discriminating faces with both the rating and key-word variables. In the multinomial and Bernoulli discriminant analyses, the distributions of the feature variables are smoothed by either the method using the random guessing probability or the kernel method. A training sample of feature data for a hundred faces was used for the parameter estimation in the discrimination methods and another sample was used to validate the methods. The results indicated the superiority of the discrimination with both the rating and key-word variables to the discrimination with either of those. Especially, the integration between the linear discriminant analysis of the rating variables and the Bernoulli analysis of the key-word ones yielded the most accurate discrimination. It was also shown that the use of the kernel method was not so effective in some cases.
A comprehensive investigation of sexual fuctions in aged persons, covering more than 10, 000 subjects, was made by Kumamoto and his colleagues (1992). We have tried to construct a single index for evaluating sexual function from part of their original data. Twelve questions concerning psychological and physical aspects of sexual activity were selected from the multiphasic questionnaire used by Kumamoto's group. Each question was answered as a numeric grade ranging from 0 to 5. A principal component analysis was carried out. The eigenvalues, the eigenvectors of the 10 principal components, and the principal component scores of 3, 677 subjects were all calculated. Since the signs of the first eigenvectors were positive for all 10 items, we proposed that they represented intensity of sexual function, an “S-score”. For ease of use, we simplified this S-score to Sum-score (simple sum of the response of each question) and further developed a nomogram to show the sexual function of each subject on the Sum-score vs age plane. Although the Sum-score used only about half of the information originally contained in the answers, we concluded that this simple presentation of complex sexual functions would likely have considerable merit in evaluating patients in clinical practice.
We consider Bayesian inference on an extented conjeneric test model (Jöreskog, 1971) xij=αj+βjθi+eij; i=1, 2, …, n and j=1, 2, …, p. The errors for each subject are assumed to distribute p-variates normal N(o, Σ), where Σ is nonsingular matrix. Several different types of multivariate linear test models are classified by means of the joint posterior distribution of β and Σ with reference prior. The marginal posterior distribution of Σ, θ and the approximated marginal posterior distribution of α are derived. The Gibbs sampler is applied to the practical test data to estimate the marginal posterior distribution of scalar parameters.
This article treats the emergence and preservation of cooperation in the finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma. Cooperative behavior in the iterated prisoner's dilemma has often been observed, even if the number of repetition is finite and fixed. But it is asserted in theory that players will defect from the very beginning in the finitely repeated prisoner's dilemma. From the evolutionary point of view, this breakdown of cooperation is translated as a gradual decline of cooperation. On this subject, Shimizu (1996) reveals the emerging process of cooperation from the follow-up study of Axelrod's simulation. In this paper, we examine the “gradual decline” of cooperation from our new simulation. We will show that when the nature of the interactions is long enough term, the gradual decline takes very long time. Therefore cooperation can be regarded as stable in practice.
We tested students with MMPI tests on their entrance into medical school, and tried to find the current features of scale scores of the tests as compared with the Japanese reference values obtained more than 25 years before. Since the data consisted of responses for two Japanese language translation versions of the tests we stratified the data by version, sex and calendar year, respectively and calculated means and standard deviations of 14 scale scores in each stratum. By comparing with the mean values of standard population, we found lower Si and higher K scores in both male and female, and significant differences in Mf scores between male and female students. On the other hand, we found neither differences due to temporal trends nor differences between versions of the test. More importantly, we were unable to find differences between successful students and those who had had to repeat a year. Indeed, correct predictions, using a linear discriminant function based upon seven of the scales, were only 60% in male and 64% in female students, respectively. Now, when we used a simple assumption as the diagnostic rule-that no students repeated-then 64% of male and 83% of female students were correctly classified; a result superior to the discriminant function rule. However, by using a different linear discriminant function, with variables selected directly from 550 unit items of MMPI test battery, we were able to attain marginally better separation than the simple rule, but for male students only. In conclusion, it is difficult to obtain a practical prediction rule using MMPI scale scores, even though use of the unit items of MMPI might improve accuracy of predictions.