We can obtain recently item response time data easily by Computer Testing. And we can evaluate examinees not only for test score but for response time. It is well known that IRT(Item Response Theory)is useful in item analysis for evaluation of test score. Similiarly we can apply item analysis for evaluation of examinee's response time to the idea of IRT. The authors proposed IRT for item response time. In this paper, the authors showed; 1. validity of the theory, 2. item analysis by the theory, 3. estimated examinee's ability for response time. And the authors showed the utilities of this theory by applying to practical data.
We propose a diagnostic method of rectangular closure by which we replace a Japanese character to provide a metric frame for quantization of Japanese handwriting. Based on Completeness and Independence of diagnostic variables, we formulate a diagnostic theory of handwriting for computerized graphology as a multivariate statistical analysis. Applications of the method to232Japanese hands revealed that27diagnostic variables defined on the metric frame were hierarchically classified into8clusters and condensed into8principal components, and that several diagnostic variables and principal components showed developmental changes with skillfulness of handwriting. We discuss the relationship between the developmental law and the aesthetic factors which contribute to the beautifulness of a written document.
For an adaptation to the new frame of diagnostic theory of handwriting proposed in the companion paper, we adopt Stability and Specificity of a diagnostic variable instead of Constancy and Rareness of a diagnostic feature(Toya, 1965). Then we prescribe a diagnostic value to a diagnostic variable with a weighting function of Stability and Specificity on an evaluation plane. Based on these new implementations for diagnostic theory of handwriting and a wide survey of Japanese hands, we formulate the theory of writer discrimination of a written document as a statistical theory of hypothesis test. We present three methods of writer discrimination:(1)testing hypothesis with one variable(Ohshio, 1975), (2)comparing similarity by means of Euclidean distance between two points in a diagnostic space(Ohshio, 1978), (3)comparing skillfulness of handwriting by means of the developmental law. We applied these methods to the issue of writer discrimination in the Sayama case.
MacGregor(Psychological Review, 1987, 94, 1, 107-108)suggested that the limitation of chunk size of short term memory can be interpreted as the optimization of memory search if the memory network is considered as a hierarchical tree. On the other hand, some recent empirical studies suggest cognitive maps have a sort of hierarchical structure. The main purpose of this note is to reconsider the structure of human cognitive maps as location search network from a viewpoint of optimization. Some mathematical propositions on search efficiency under certain conditions are briefly reviewed. Then, the hierarchies of human cognitive maps, obtained by Hirtle and Jonides(1985, Memory&Cognition, 13, 3, 208-217)'s experiment, are analyzed and copmpared with the efficient structure based on those mathematical propositions. It is shown that, the cognitive maps, as dynamically changing and self-organizing structures, may be considered efficient search networks.
A series of experiments on the model-reproducibility of some procedures in multivariate analysis was carried out in this paper. The following five procedures were dealt with: Hayashi's third method of quantification, categorical canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis(centroid method and least-squares method)and principal component analysis. They share the feature of having the objective of analyzing the inner correlations without so-called outside variables. The original model is a plane figure consisting of two circles with sixteen points representing individuals and five points representing categories. Measurement of the linear distances between the two groups of points gives rise to a data matrix of size16×5. Each of the five procedures was used to analyze the data matrix and then to draw the scatter plots of individuals and categories. Using the closeness of the scatter plots with the original figure, the procedures were ranked from the worst to best in the previous order with the last two tied. It is proved also that if the data matrix consists of squared distances, then the principal component analysis leads to a faithful representation of the original figure.