Studies applying the parallel distributed processing (PDP) model to Japanese kanji (Ijuin, Fushimi & Tatsumi, 2002a) pre-assume that each kanji interactively connects to orthographic, phonological and semantic representations on one-to-one basis. However, Japanese kanji greatly varies their phonological structure. Thus, Experiment 1 conducted the naming task for single kanji Kun-readings of one to three morae, suggested no difference among three mora length. When the same kanji were presented in hiragana, the mora length showed the effect. Likewise, Experiment 2 conducted the same task for single kanji On-readings of one to two morae with high and low kanji-printed frequency. The result showed no effects of mora length, but there were effects of kanji frequency. This result reversed when the same kanji were presented in hiragana; there were effects of more length, but no effects of kanji frequency. Consequently, single kanji orthographical representations correspond to single kanji phonological representations, supporting the application of kanji processing to the PDP model.
Research on insight problem solving has mainly been treated within the scope of Gestalt psychology in the past. And now, insight problems are being investigated in cognitive psychology. However, little is known about how the process develops. In this study, we investigated the process of insight problem solving using a discovery task. The purpose of this research is to answer the following two points: First, how do constraint relaxation and the swith of a problem space search progress in insight problem solving? Second, what differences lie between successful subjects who reached the solution and unsuccessful subjects who did not? In this research, we analyzed the process of subjects searching their hypothesis space based on hypotheses that the subjects verbally reported. Additionally, we also measured the subjects' eye movement when they solved the problem. The following results were obtained. First, insight was not suddenly obtained in an instant, but rather gained through a relatively gradual mental relaxation process. Second, we found that the subjects who found the correct target reacted more sensitively to the irregular experimental results, as negative feedback caused rejection of the subjects' hypotheses. Our study detected insight problem solving processes in more detail by using not only subjects' verbal reports, but also psychological data obtained through eye movement measurements.
The present study explored factors that promote change in discussants' explanations for a social phenomenon through a highly ill-defined problem solving discussion. Specifically, causal model 1 (engagement in conflicting and⁄or cooperative discourse promotes cognitive change) and causal model 2 (questioning by other triggers one's explanatory activity which results in his⁄her cognitive change) were mainly examined. Forty-three college students were divided into 10 groups, which consist of 4-5 members each. Each group was asked to construct a hypothetical causal explanation, which explains the causes of Japanese teenager's impulsive aggression. All discussions were videotaped and coded in terms of conversational function with a coding schema developed by Tomida & Maruno (2000). Frequencies of coded utterances that each discussant generated during discussion were utilized as main variables. As results, although the model 2 was supported, the model 1 was partially supported. That is, while cooperative utterances facilitated cognitive change, conflicting utterances had no such an effect. Additionally, examining relationships among frequencies of utterances, we found cooperative utterances elicit explanatory activity. Considering a fact that explanatory activity clearly led changes in explanations, we speculated that the two causal models can be integrated.
“Moving pictures on sliding doors” date back to the Edo Era in Japan. These pictures were called moving pictures because they seem to move when they are viewed while moving. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanism underlying this illusionary phenomenon. For that purpose, photographs of a “moving picture” on sliding doors were taken using a digital camera, and the characteristic points on each image were digitized and stored in a computer. Then changes in perception of the picture with movement of the viewpoint of the observer were computed by using a coordination transformation technique. The results of calculation revealed that the picture had been painted from a bird's-eye view and that the illusionary motion is seen when the observer views the picture from an oblique angle while moving along the length of the sliding doors. When viewing the picture from an oblique angle while moving, distances from points on the picture to the observer's viewpoint change, and these changes in distances give rise to the illusionary motion of the picture. Thus, the mechanism by which the picture is perceived as moving is motion parallax.
The storage capacity of computers is growing rapidly and computers are being used for various purposes, such as taking memos, reading books, and storing photos. They are used to stimulate human memories as shown in the study of enhanced memory. As it is troublesome to handle physical books, they are easy to be hoarded. But by showing the data as slide shows, it is easy to see various data with little effort and it enables us to remind many things. Computers can be powerful tools that help people to remember things. In this paper, studies of enhanced memories are reviewed and the experience of living in a “Remembrance Home”, which has more than eight hundred thousand digital images in it and which has been designed by the author, is described.