Reconstructing explanations perform a crucial role not only in the progress of science, but in educational practice and daily activities including comprehension of phenomena. We focused on the transition of attention on a key fact that contradicts the preceding explanation and has a central role in its reconstruction. We used a short story as an experimental material in which the participants first constructed a prior explanation and reconstructed it. The experimental results are summarized as follows. First, when the prior explanation was rejected, a new explanation was required, after attention on the key fact was inhibited. Second, hypothesized premises not inconsistent with the prior explanation were sought to protect the prior explanation. Third, the explanation reconstruction was facilitated by having the participants focus on the key fact. Last, attention on the key fact was recovered through explanation reconstruction.
The process of formation by an artist of an art concept for the production of a new series of artwork has not yet been empirically elucidated. The goal of this study is to describe the process of art concept formation by a contemporary artist through metrical analyses of a text corpus based on interviews with the artist. From an analysis of the frequency of occurrence of items of vocabulary in the interview data and the TF-IDF (term frequency-inverse document frequency), we find that the second of three phases in the artist’s creative process was the most critical for the formation of the art concept, as shown in our previous qualitative study. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the art concept, White Noise, was inspired by a motif generated by the artist, and its contents were continuously modified and developed over time. Further, based on an analysis of co-occurrence frequencies of words, the structure of the art concept was deduced from the importance of co-occurring vocabulary. By means of visualizing the network of co-occurrence analysis, it is clarified that the feature words Large Glass functioned in the first phase as an intermedium for dividing the structure of the concept into two parts. In the second phase, these two parts of the structure of the concept became integrated into one. In the last phase, the structure of the concept was elaborated with the revived feature words, White Noise and Duchamp.
Speech act theory has been studied using artificial or small-world examples in many research fields such as philosophy, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. It is, however, unclear how this theory is applicable to real activities in the actual world. In this pa- per, we reconsider the speech act theory based on analyses of “commanding”utterances used by the leader of a group working together to drag big trees out of a forest. Our field involves i) a large number of actors participating in the activity, ii) huge objects manipulated in a huge space, and iii) physical actions performed in real time. These characteristics require some conditions that are to be met for a “commanding”utterance to be used felicitously. We show that these preparatory conditions of “commanding” are tightly connected to the prerequisites of the physical action that the commander requests the hearers to perform. We also demonstrate how the preparatory conditions are achieved interactively, concurrently, and in a situation-dependent fashion through multi-party collaborative interaction.
This paper analyzes the relationship between participation and learning represented in ethnographic case studies of ten informants aged 23-59 participating in a common- based peer production site, the FabLab Kamakura community. Digital-based personal fabrication is a new wave culture of mavens, who are devoted to alternatives to mass production, and are on a mission “to make (almost) anything”. FabLab Kamakura is a valuable venue for exchanging information about, for example, digital tools, Arduino, crafts, textiles, and so on. First we frame this work as an effort to think about their participation and learning using the concept of “wildfire activity theory”(Engeström, 2009) and “legitimate peripheral participation (LPP)”from Lave and Wenger (1991). Then we argue an overview of FabLab culture in Japan and at FabLab Kamakura. Us- ing SCAT methodology (Otani, 2011), we group our findings in two different categories: (1) learning through participation in FabLab Kamakura, (2) the visualization of weak ties and mobility through participation in wildfire activities. We conclude that partic- ipants at FabLab Kamakura are producing and designing available artifacts for their lives and works, and in doing so, what they are designing is the physical manifestation of their very thoughts.
In musicology consonance is defined as the state where two or more tones simultane- ously presented sound pleasantly. Sensory consonance, which is perceived from tones isolated from a musical context, is largely independent of listener’s cultural background and musical experience. Several studies revealed that infants prefer consonant tones to dissonant tones and that nonhuman animals discriminate between consonant and dissonant tones. Since Helmholtz introduced the concept of sensory consonance in the 19th century, sensory consonance has been studied actively. In the 1960s models became able to estimate the perceived consonance of complex tones from the physical properties of the tones. However, sensory consonance still contains a number of problems to be solved and has been studied by multiple approaches. This paper reviews the advances and issues in studies on consonance, especially sensory consonance.