When a system gives outputs that you do not predict，you regard those as unexpected events and try to identify the causes affecting those events． In this study,we try to understand how people identify the causes affecting unexpected events by using a card magic called the three card monte as an experimental material.In our experiments,the participants were required to find out the tricks by watching a video in which a magician plays the magic.We focused on two cluesrelated tocause identification.The first is distinctiveness of events; and the second is availability of feedback information.The results of the experimentsshowed that the distinctiveness of events affected the performance of cause identification,whereas the availability of feedback information did not. The processanalyses revealed that even if feedback information was not directly given,the participants could perform reasoning for cause identification based on hypothetical information not observed.
The concept of agency has been frequently discussed in recent years. In this article,I examine Actor Network Theory and the concept of hybrid collective, both of which propose agency as a hybrid of human and non-human actors. In this theory, human actors and non-human actors are completely symmetrical and equivalent in their analytical procedure. While this symmetry is instructive in emphasizing the importance of non-human agency, it is also problematic in understanding the actualities of agency. To appreciate the concept of agency more precisely, it should be considered as a recursive,dynamic and historical achievement. Agency is an important concept; its theoretical distinctiveness will have an active influence upon the field of psychology and cognitive science.
The goal of the present study was to clarify the propagation processof a specific idea in classroom and how the process relates to their understanding of lesson content. The target of the analysis was a learning unit consisting of 7 hours about state of water in science class in which 27 fourth graders attended. In the analysis, keywords related to the specific important idea was chosen. An analytic method was developed to extract the keywords in classroom discourse and track in chronological order. In order to measure the students’ acceptance of the idea, their mental models for state transition of water, which were repeatedly drawn on a sheet of paper, were evaluated. As a result, the following five characteristics were found: (1) the finally accepted idea has speculative nature in the beginning of discussion, (2) teacher’s revoicing acts which emphasize differences among students’ ideas have important role in the idea propagation from a small group to a whole class discussion, (3) the acceptance of new ideas was decided based on the consideration of situational factors, (4) the negative feedbacks offered by peers suppress the acceptance of idea, and (5) Constructive discourse is a necessary condition for student’s personal acceptance of the propagated ideas.
In this experiment, we verified the sensory relatedness of onomatopoeic words that represent texture. The effect of the difference between Hiragana and Katakana or thography was investigated by asking 74 participants to evaluate onomatopoeic words written in Hiragana and Katakana. Participants were requested to evaluate the degree to which 69 onomatopoeic words that express texture were related to the five modalities (vision, olfaction, hearing, taste, and touch) on a 7-point scale. Among the 74 participants, 54 participants evaluated the words written in normal orthography. And 22 remaining participants evaluated the words writtenin reverse orthography. The results indicated, that the relatedness of echoic words to touch and hearing was high, and orthography did not influence the results. On the other hand, the modalities that were highly related to imitative wordswere significantly different according to orthography. That is, orthography effects differed between imitative words and echoic words.
To recognize another person’s emotion from facial expressions is important for social learning, as well as for understanding the behavior and mental state of others in a broad context. We investigate the effects of empathic traits in recognizing emotion facial expressions. The participants were divided into high trait-empathy and low traitempathy groups on the basis of their scores of the Emotional Empathy Scale and the Emotional Experience Scale. The participant’s task was to categorize the visually presented facial expressions and to select one emotional label from the seven emotional expressions (neutral, happy, surprise, anger, fear, sadness, disgust). The result indicated that the percentages of correct answer for the anger and fear expressions in the high traitempathy group were higher than those in the low trait-empathy group. These results suggest that the empathy for other people is related to emotional processing for facial expressions.
We can consider a lecture to have a structure consisting of elementssuch as theme, background, evidence, conclusion, and the relationships among them. Although learning such a structural schema can enhance lecture comprehension,the schema itself is highly abstract and hard for novices to use. This study examines the effectiveness of collaborative use of visual scaffolds, adaptable to atarget lecture. In order to create such scaffolds, the author analyzed its structure andvisualized it schematically on two dimensional sheets. I asked five pairs of undergraduates (10 students in total) to lay out lecture elements on the scaffolds and to discuss the content as well as the structure of the whole lecture. I compared this condition with a control condition of free note-taking, also consisting of five pairs of undergraduates. The results indicated that the experiment condition increased understanding of the lecture content and structure.Thevisual scaffolds were used in diverse ways among the pairs, demonstrating their active learning of the target lecture as well as initial acquisition of the general structure of lectures. These findings can enrich our instructional repertoireof introductory college education.