This review focuses on priming phenomena in social psychology area. First, various social priming phenomena were discriminated and I describe about trait priming. It is included in the conceptual priming. Second, I refer to goal priming. Goal priming activates motivation and often influences on behavior. Third, evaluative priming is a very interesting procedure and is now used for measurement of implicit attitudes. Fourth, affective priming is sometimes understood as mood congruent effect, however I will introduce various dependent measure and compare two models. Fifth, mind-set priming is a novel procedure and is paid much attention to as more complex procedure. Lastly, I will introduce goal-directed behavior and counteractive self-control theory and discuss the role of consciousness.
In general, people tend to associate men with work-related concepts and women with home-related concepts. In this study, we examined whether these beliefs about sex- roles that people had implicitly and also explicitly were influenced by remembering exemplars of homemakers (i.e., traditional women) or career women (i.e., nontradi- tional women). Participants were asked to remember as many exemplars of traditional or nontraditional women as they could and write down their names. Following this manipulation, they completed the paper-and-pencil IAT measuring their implicit asso- ciations between gender and concepts related to work and home. They then completed a measure of explicit belief about sex-roles. The results showed that participants who remembered exemplars of nontraditional women revealed weaker implicit male-work and female-home associations than participants who remembered exemplars of tradi- tional women. On the other hand, the explicit belief about sex-roles was not influenced by the type of the remembered women exemplars. These results suggested that the belief that people have implicitly about sex-roles might depend on the type of women exemplars activated in situation. Finally, we discussed possible processes of the change in implicit belief about sex-roles.
We examined the effect of subliminal mere exposure on the implicit group evaluation, focusing on the typicality of group members. Recent researches on the mere exposure effects have suggested the important roles of the cognitive factors on preference forma- tion. We considered the exposures to non-typical members in a group as the factor of heterogeneity, investigating the optimum level of heterogeneity to improve the implicit “Otaku” evaluation. We hypothesized that exposure to a few heterogeneous members in a group would have a stronger effect. In the experiment, ten group members were subliminally presented as “Otaku”, and the number of the typical members in the ten members was manipulated. Then their implicit “Otaku” evaluations were measured using the Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results showed that the exposure to the seven typical and three non-typical members produced the most powerful effects in all conditions, whereas the exposures which contained more non-typical members than typical members had no effect. The roles of heterogeneity in mere exposure effect and implications for the unconsciousness of the higher mental processes were discussed.
This study examines the effects of an incubation period on the creative thinking- process, particularly on the metaphor creation process. In an experiment, participants were asked to create“X like a Y” type metaphors on the basis of theme phrases, which contain adjectives and nouns. Participants in the control group were asked to create metaphors immediately after they were given the theme phrase. Participants in the in- cubation group were asked to generate metaphors after a distracter task. Participants in the wait group were asked to create metaphors after thinking for three minutes. The results of the experiment revealed that when the theme phrases contained connected but complex words, the incubation group created more metaphors than the other groups. When the theme phrases contained diverse but disjointed words, the wait group created more metaphors than the other groups.
When people make inference about other’s mental state, they refer as an anchor to privileged information which they know and other doesn’t know, thereafter they make adjustment from the anchor to shared information which they know and other know. When adjustment are insufficiently, they use more privileged information, and have more egocentric biases. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether or not considering an anchor could affect strength of egocentric biases. Participants read a story about an e-mail sent from a person to another person and then the participants were asked to infer mental state of recipient. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to make a considering privileged information before making an inference. In Experi- ment 2, cognitive load were operated, participants made an inference under a condition prevented conscious cognitive process. These results showed that participants who con- sidered privileged information had more egocentric biases. These results are discussed cognitive processes controlling use of privileged information.
Growing evidence has suggested interesting dissociations between conscious and sub- conscious processing in insight problem solving. It indicates a possibility that the process of insight problem solving is largely governed by an implicit learning mecha- nism that detects the differences between current and goal states, and regulates the strengths of the responsible operators. If the implicit learning mechanism takes part in the insight problem solving process, the process might be affected by a hint stimu- lus subliminally presented, because such a stimulus could not be used by the explicit learning system. We examined this possibility using the continuos flash suppression technique. The results of two experiments showed that subjects subliminally presented with the goal state of a difficult insight puzzle solved it much faster than those in the control group. These results were discussed in terms of unconscious nature of insight problem solving, gradual tuning of operator strengths during the impasse, and roles of subliminal hint information in the problem solving processes.
It is an important question for the cognitive study whether implicit processes affect metacognitive control or not. On the Koriat’s (2000) view, the subjective experience is a product through implicit processes, and relates next metacognitive control. It is unclear whether implicit processes influence metacognitive control. Our study investi- gates this question with subliminal mere exposure paradigm. Other important ques- tion is an individual difference of metacognitive process. Song, et al. (2011) showed individual differences in metacognitive monitoring. The purposes of this study are to examine whether (1) the implicit process relates metacognitive control, and (2) this relation depends on individual differences in metacognitive monitoring. Experiment 1 consisted of 3 phases. First phase, participants were presented unfamiliar polygonal shapes subliminally. Second phase, they studied the shape of polygons which were exposed and unexposed at first phase by their pace. Third phase, they made recogni- tion judgments on studied polygons and predicted their recognition performance. The experiment showed that participants who can predict accurately their recognition per- formance allocated more study time to unexposed polygons than exposed. This result indicates that implicit processes may possibly drive metacognitive control through the intermediary of metacognitive monitoring. However, this interpretation is based on an assumption that off-line monitoring defined with the prediction accuracy of recognition performance after self-paced study is identical with on-line monitoring which may in- termediate the effect of implicit processes to control during self-paced study. Therefor experiment 2 examines this assumption about relationship between off-line and on-line monitoring. Our data showed that significant correlation between the on-line and the off-line monitoring measure. The data indicates that the on-line and off-line monitoring have a common process. Our results suggested that we could use the information from the implicit process to metacognitive control.