In order to investigate practical knowledge for risk management in extreme natural environment, interviews were conducted with seven Field Assistants of Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, who were in charge of safety of the expedition. From 194 segments obtained from the transcptions, belief and risk management strategies were identified by qualitative analysis referring to GTA (Glaser & Strauss, 1969; Saiki, 2006). 35 categories, which have two important property, timing and information sources of risk management, were found. Those categories were grouped into five super categories; <Off-site risk reduction referring to past concrete information>, <Hybrid use of past concrete information and on-site cues with awareness of uncertainty>, <On-site risk treatment with sensitivity to risk cues>, <Acquisition of practical knowledge through reflection of dilemmas and awareness of uncertainty>, and <cherished opinions for safety control>, and a cognitive model of risk management in the extreme natural environment was proposed. At off-site, risk reduction was conducted by referring to past similar situations, or with accidental or successful cases, while at on-site,risk treatment was conducted by referring to transition of risk factors or sensible cues which can only be obtained at onsite. Balance between on-site /off-site risk treatment was altered according to the characteristics of risk sources. Negative evaluation of one's risk management like awareness of uncertainty or limitation of data through reflection was regarded as contributing to better risk management in the extreme environment in which even small failure would be critical. Finally,the proposed model was compared to existing cognitive model of decision making in hi-stake environment (e.g., Hollnagel et al., 2006; Klein, 1998) and concluded that the model has merit of clarifying the collaboration of on-site/ off-site risk treatment.
The purpose of this article is to advance the situated approach through adopting the concepts of performance. Ueno,Sawyer, and Moro (2014) hybridized Actor Network Theory and Activity Theory and proposed analytical viewpoint of “modes of exchange”. For succession of the proposition, we advanced the viewpoint of exchange in emotional aspect. We introduced the viewpoint of “performative exchanges”, which focus to dominant pattern of giving-getting on learning practices and transformation of the pattern, for this purpose. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with members of welfare service associations and analyzed by two steps as follow. In step 1, we described the entrepreneurial process of welfare serves from two viewpoints of “translation of interest” and “modes of exchange”. Through the comparison of two viewpoints, we found that dominant pattern of giving-getting on this practice is “providing service-receiving reward”, which is characterized by “working for equation”. In step 2, we focused to imagination and emotionality in order to analyze the transformation of “providing service-receiving reward”. The result showed that mechanism of transformation is playful imaginative exchanges with “the most peripheral participants” and re-construction of the exchange of commodities. In general discussion, we pointed out that difference among three viewpoints is approach to emotion.
This study examined the effects of haptic stimuli through visual stimuli in interpersonal behavior. The experiment participants were divided into three groups. The “harsh” group experienced harsh haptic stimuli using a web browser. Similarly,the “sticky” group experienced sticky stimuli. The control group did not experience any visual stimuli. After the experience, the participants were asked to join a public goods game. The experiment results showed that the investment amount of the “sticky” group was significantly higher than that of the other two groups. On the other hand, the investment amount of the “harsh” group was less than that of the other two groups. These results thus indicated that the “sticky” group behaved in a cooperative manner, while the “harsh” group behaved in an uncooperative manner. The experiment results thus suggested that haptic experience through visual stimuli can evoke haptic priming.