In athletic skill learning, an athlete, i.e. a learner, should be able to keep questioning the relation between a given ideal form and his or her own body. He or she questions that relation through listening to what the own body feels and raising significant issues as an athlete. We argue that the learner may want to derive questions even through various considerations in the daily life. This way, the learner is able to truly realize what that given form means. The first author, an athlete specializing in decathlon, has been aiming to learn skills of running. The objective of this paper is to story-tell how he lives as an athlete, in a way in which skill learning in competition and in daily life are mixed together. In the beginning, he has attended to various variables and raised issues around the whole body. Further, in order to deliberately consider arm swing, he has devised a tool for motion visualization using LED. The light trail of the arms in running enabled him to deepen his body feeling as if touching his own body. During a long period of his injury, he has come to regard standing and walking in his daily life as the basic skill of employing the body (BSEB). Moreover, he has come to reinterpret objects in his daily life as tools that encourage him to question about BSEB. We can interpret his learning process as a typical example of the concept of going savage advocated by Lévi-Strauss. Then, we have analyzed how his running form has changed through these practices, comparing the sequences of photographs in several runs during these periods. This type of study, an inventory of story-telling of the detailed thoughts and activities in the real life of a learner of embodied skill,is highly significant in cognitive science.
This article describes the reality of interaction among teachers and researchers in the process of lesson study. For this purpose, we used a project of learning sciences as a research field and selected teachers (the main teacher and surrounding teachers) and researchers as research participants. We first collected and analyzed process data of two cases of lesson study such as teachers' lesson plans, learning materials, reflection notes, participants' comments on them, and their observation of the lesson. We also conducted a retrospective interview of the main teacher and one of the participating researchers to yield narrative data. The analyses showed that the main teacher did not accept the opinions of the researchers directly nor instantly. However, he changed his view in the whole process of lesson study especially when he noticed the reality of students' learning as he wrote the teachers' reflection note which was designed by the researchers to foster teachers' learning. The researcher also learned from the process by proposing his own hypotheses of how students would learn in that lesson, responding to ideas of the main teacher, and verifying the hypotheses based on the evidence of students' learning.
This paper, based on the methodological frameworks of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis (EMCA) and interaction analysis, looks at four video-recorded service encounters where a wheelchair user with cerebral palsy attempts to buy a ticket at a train station in Japan. During the encounters, the three parties—train station attendants, the wheelchair user, and her care professionals—face a practical problem of whether special assistance should be provided to the wheelchair user. Such assistance would facilitate the progressivity of their ticket-purchasing activity. Alternatively, not offering such assistance would maintain the participation status of the care professionals, which relates to the autonomy of the wheelchair user. The present analysis reveals that in general, the train station attendants and care professionals both orient to maintaining the unaddressed recipient status of the care professionals. Even when the possibility arises that progressivity in the ongoing interaction may become inhibited, the train station attendants explore the possibilities of selecting the wheelchair user as next speaker, and of trying to delay the selection of the care professionals as much as possible. Further,even in the moment when the care professionals are selected as next speaker, they behave so as not to highlight this fact or their involvement in the interaction. The participants thus navigate through their practical problems, not with an either-or approach, but by simultaneously addressing the progressivity of their activity and avoiding the involvement of care professionals. This is made possible by their meticulous attention to the other participants' behavior and development of the activity, as well as by their own careful, coordinated participation in the interaction. Finally, the participants' problems are embedded within their socially organized practice. Their behavior in the encounters itself constitutes their morality, as well as their methods for living life in reality.
Seafarers determine a vessel's surrounding conditions using landscape from bridge and radar devices. Radar information may play a central role in remotely controlling ships while landscape information is still considered important in current navigation. Regarding collision-avoidance, these separate modes of navigation interact differently with human judgment,resulting in dissimilar safety outcomes. A better understanding of these interactions would enable enhanced troubleshooting for operator-related navigational difficulties. Therefore, to ensure future safety at sea, it is important to clarify the differences in the nature of these sources. This research aims to investigate how differing information sources influences human judgment in terms of both situational awareness and strategy in avoiding collisions between ships. An experiment was conducted with a full-screen ship navigation simulator, in which navigators of varying experience levels made collision-avoidance judgments in a congested traffic situation using either radar or landscape information. We obtained data on “collision-avoidance judgment” (timing and degree of bearing relating to course alteration), “ships paid attention to,” and “intention of maneuvering.” The following findings were obtained: (a) The degree to which highly experienced groups were able to reduce the influence of the differing information sources was strongly related to their situational awareness. It was also suggested that they used different strategies depending on the information source available. (b) Individual differences in collision-avoidance judgment and situational awareness were influenced not only by the nature of the sources but also the varying levels of practitioner experience. Furthermore, the strategy of using radar information appeared to result in greater individual differences than that of using landscape information. These findings are expected to identify the problems that navigators and operators, who mainly use either information source, may face, and contribute to research on remote-control or monitoring in not only the maritime field but also other mobility fields.
It is necessary to retrieve less salient knowledge to think creatively (e.g., idea generation and insight problem solving). We hypothesized that people retrieve less salient knowledge by searching for a commonality between unrelated objects rather than by thinking about an object itself. In Experiment 1, fifty undergraduates were assigned to one of two groups:commonality search and word association. While the participants in the commonality search group were asked to list the commonalities between unrelated objects (e.g., a strawberry and a television), those in the word association group were asked to list as many words as they could remember from each object. The answers listed by the participants in the commonality search group were less salient than those in the word association group. In Experiment 2, we obtained the same pattern of results as those of Experiment 1 with modified procedure and measures of saliency. We concluded that the commonality search between unrelated objects is effective in retrieving less salient knowledge.
This study aimed to examine the relationship between ECEC (Early Childhood Education and Care) staff's years of professional experience and their gaze patterns during child care. We used wearable eye trackers (Tobii Pro Glasses 2) to quantify their gaze patterns, i.e., the number of looking at the children's face or other (i.e., non-face) areas. The results revealed that, during snack time, the more years of childcare experience the ECEC staff had, the longer they looked at other area than children's face area and the greater were the number of gazes. In contrast, the longer their childcare experience, the less they gazed at children's face, and the fewer were the number of gazes. Our findings may advance our understanding of the information processing of the expert ECEC staffs.
From the perspective of embodied cognition, sensory-motor representation is activated during comprehension of sentences. Although many studies have supported this view, activation of the sensory-motor representation during second language comprehension is still not well understood, especially in L2 beginners. To investigate whether the representations are involved in the comprehension of action sentences in Japanese and English, three experiments were conducted with Japanese students at CEFR A1-A2 levels. In experiment 1-1 and experiment 1-2, Japanese students performed a sensible judgment task for unimanual and bimanual action sentences, and for mental action sentences in both Japanese and English. The reaction times for the mental action sentences were significantly longer than in the other two types of sentences in both languages. No significant difference was observed between the unimanual and bimanual sentences. The third experiment, Experiment 2, was conducted to compare perfect tense and progressive tense of hand action sentences and mental action sentences. Participants read English sentences to answer the sensible judgment task. In the hand action sentences, the reaction time to a progressive tense was shorter than to a perfect tense. However, the tenses showed no significant influence on the mental sentences. These results suggest that comprehending a second language activates the sensory-motor representation even in learners who are not fluent in the language.
In this paper, by classifying a morphological similarity between the human hand and a virtual/man-made hand into structural and appearance similarities, we investigated sense of body consciousness and visual body-part localization for the virtual hands of point-lights and skeleton displays for which structural similarity was high but the appearance similarity was extremely low. In the first experiment, questionnaire ratings of the senses of agency for both displays were high in training of a finger movement task. Because each of the senses of body ownership was evaluated as a bimodal distribution, participants were classified into higher and lower groups. The senses of both of the lower groups were significantly low. The senses of the higher group for the skeleton display were significantly high for the training. For the point-lights display, although the senses of the lower group were relatively low at the beginning of the training, the senses increased to the same rating as those for the skeleton display through the training. In the second experiment, the fingertip positions of each display were shifted to the left by 15 cm. Although the senses of agency were significantly high for both displays, the senses of body ownership of both were significantly low. The drift of the visual body-part localization rose and the proprioceptive drift was also observed after the training. Thus, these results indicate that a sense of body ownership occurs even for a point-lights display, and moreover, the drifts rise even when the sense is not felt.
The present study aims to elucidate waiting for a patient's reaction as a clinical skill of speech-language-hearing therapists (STs). Our analysis focused on the timing and methods employed by STs when they provide a verbal support to their aphasia patients who had difficulty in speaking. Video recordings of novice and experienced STs providing speech therapy to aphasia patients were documented. The results indicated that experienced STs organized a therapeutic sequence responding not only to patients' utterances, but to nonverbal behaviors such as facial expressions and gestures as well, and arranged a timing of handing a verbal support accordingly. In this study, we call this STs' practice a gradual hint-presentation sequence organization. The sequence consisted of STs' step-by-step processes towards their final hint presentation to the patients, through which STs became able to infer the situation of aphasia patients in a word finding difficulty. These processes are considered to be a procedure in which STs attempted to put off their hint presentation to the maximum extent possible. These results suggest that STs can elicit a word from aphasia patients through multimodal interaction with them. The establishment of multimodal interaction with patients appears to constitute one of important aspects in clinical skills STs should strive for.
This study shows a database developed to investigate developmental changes in children's musical behaviors in the context of the parent-child dyad. Data were collected through longitudinal observations of 30 parent-child pairs who interactively played with musical instruments (e.g., a small glockenspiel) during the first four years of the children. We organized the database not only as an archive of the collected videotaped data but also as a research tool by installing some functions (e.g., synchronized presentation of the data with a coding sheet [text data] and addition of bookmarks to points of interest on the coding sheet) that would allow researchers to code and analyze the data more efficiently. We presented the utility of our database as a research tool by illustrating the first behavior of the children in regard to playing with musical instruments (such as hitting a glockenspiel with mallets) and related it to the development of children's behavioral and cognitive abilities, and the contextual features (both physical and social). In the last section, we briefly explained some issues relevant to creating conditions for the secure, open, and flexible operation of our database, which would be crucial for sharing its value with researchers from a diverse range of scholarly interests.
In this paper we consider the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive science. The aim of artificial intelligence was to understand human intelligence constructively and the aim of cognitive science was to understand human intelligence analytically. Recent advances in artificial intelligence have made it possible to realize intelligence by computers so far, though still far inferior to humans. From now the aim of artificial intelligence should be to understand general intelligence constructively and the aim of cognitive science should be to understand general intelligence analytically. I discuss in this paper the relationship between artificial intelligence and cognitive science using the example of our research themes: the frame problem, games, and Haiku.
This article systematically discusses the status of recognition in the social systems theory of Niklas Luhmann, a German sociologist. In the sociological context, Luhmann's theory relates to the problem of meaning construction and micro-macro link. In the other research fields, the problem of intersubjectivity in Husserl's phenomenology, a theory of autopoiesis by Maturana and Varela, constructivism in cognitive theories, social constructivism in science studies are especially important as academic contexts. Succeeding to these intellectual heritages Luhmann has defined the psychic system and the social system as autopoietic, meaning constructing systems. In such a system its elements are produced and reproduced by the same elements in an operationally closed network. In the psychic system, thoughts reproduce thoughts, and in the social system, communications reproduce communications. The relation of these two systems is characterized as the structural coupling, and both systems determine their own operations self-referentially though they exchange some turbulence with each other. The self-referentiality of the social system characterizes the status of social systems theory as the second-order observation, and leads it to the epistemology socialized without any ultimate foundation. In the last part, cognitive sociology and neurosociology are introduced as a recent research trend in cognition. This trend is characterized as a scientific exploration into Quine's “epistemology naturalized”.